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Far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (submm) lines emitted from the interstellar medium (ISM) not only reflect the ISM physical properties that are correlated with the star formation (SF) process, but also trace the underlying density distribution and promise cosmological studies. Accurate ISM emission lines modeling and measurement are therefore crucial in revealing a variety of science. In this talk I will introduce two theoretical models: 1) an analytic framework of OIII fine structure line emission modeling and, 2) a CII, CO and CI sub-resolution submm line emission model based on semi-analytic galaxy formation model and population synthesis code, to interpret the current and upcoming galaxy and line intensity mapping (LIM) observations. I will then discuss signal measurement and foreground removal in LIM surveys.