Number Theory Seminar
We investigate a notion of ``higher modularity'' for elliptic curves over function fields. Given such an elliptic curve $E$ and an integer $r\geq 1$, we say that $E$ is $r$-modular when there is an algebraic correspondence between a stack of $r$-legged shtukas, and the $r$-fold product of $E$ considered as an elliptic surface. The (known) case $r=1$ is analogous to the notion of modularity for elliptic curves over the rationals. Our main theorem is that if $E/\F_q(t)$ is a nonisotrivial elliptic curve whose conductor has degree 4, then $E$ is 2-modular. Ultimately, the proof uses properties of K3 surfaces. Along the way we prove a result of independent interest: A K3 surface admits a finite morphism to a Kummer surface attached to a product of elliptic curves, if and only if its Picard lattice is rationally isometric to the Picard lattice of such a Kummer surface.