Caltech Question of the Week: How Can Different Kinds of Vegetables Contain Different Vitamins When Grown in the Same Soil?

Question of the Month Submitted by Doris Bower, Arcadia, Calif., and answered by Dr. Elliot Meyerowitz, Professor of Biology, Caltech.

Caltech Astronomers Crack the Puzzle of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

A team of Caltech astronomers has pinpointed a gamma-ray burst several billion light-years away from the Milky Way. The team was following up on a discovery made by the Italian/Dutch satellite BeppoSAX.

Question of the Week: Does the earth keep a constant distance from the sun? If not, will the earth get closer to the sun and become more warm?

Question: Does the earth keep a constant distance from the sun? If not, will the earth get closer to the sun and become more warm?

Submitted by Steven S. Showers Newbury Park, California

Answered by Andrew Ingersoll, professor of planetary science, Caltech.

Caltech Astronomer Obtains Data That Could Resolve the "Age Problem"

Dr. Neill Reid, using information collected by the European Space Agency's Hipparcos satellite, has determined that a key distance measure used to compute the age of certain Milky Way stars is off by 10 to 15 percent. The new data leads to the conclusion that the oldest stars are actually 11 to 13 billion years old, rather than 16 to 18 billion years old, as had been thought.

Caltech A Major Partner in National Program To Develop Advanced Computational Infrastructure

PASADENA, California — The California Institute of Technology (Caltech) will play three key roles in the National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (NPACI) in the areas of management, resource deployment, and technology and application initiatives. The NPACI program is one of two partnerships each awarded approximately $170 million over five years in the National Science Foundation's Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (PACI) slated to begin October 1, 1997.

Question of the Week: Who Invented the Equal Sign, and Why?

Submitted by Pat Orr, Altadena, California, and answered by Tom Apostol, Professor of Mathematics Emeritus, Caltech.

Caltech Scientists Invent Polymer For Detecting Blood Glucose

PASADENA— Scientists have designed a polymer that could vastly improve the way diabetics measure their blood glucose levels. The polymer is described in the current issue of Nature Biotechnology.

According to Dr. Frances Arnold, a professor of chemical engineering at the California Institute of Technology, the polymer is superior to the current enzyme-based glucose detectors because it is not of biological origin. The polymer will be easier to make and thus lead to cheaper and more reliable glucose sensors.

Caltech Scientists Find Evidence For Massive Ice Age When Earth Was 2.4 billion Years Old

PASADENA— Those who think the winter of '97 was rough should be relieved that they weren't around 2.2 billion years ago. Scientists have discovered evidence for an ice age at the time that was severe enough to partially freeze over the equator. In today's new issue of Nature, California Institute of Technology geologists Dave Evans and Joseph Kirschvink report evidence that glaciers came within a few degrees of the equator's latitude when the planet was about 2.4 billion years old.

State-of-the-Art Seismic Network Gets First Trial-by-Fire During This Morning's 5.4-magnitude Earthquake

PASADENA—Los Angeles reporters and camera crews responding to a 5.4-magnitude earthquake this morning got their first look at the new Caltech/USGS earthquake monitoring system.

The look was not only new but almost instantaneous. Within 15 minutes of the earthquake, Caltech seismologists had already printed out a full-color poster-sized map of the region to show on live TV, and had already posted the contour map on the Internet. Moreover, they were able to determine the magnitude of the event within five minutes — a tremendous improvement over the time it once took to confirm data.

Caltech Question of the Week: Do Earth's Plates Move In a Certain Direction?

Submitted by Frank Cheng, Alhambra, California, and answered by Joann Stock, Associate Professor of Geology and Geophysics, Caltech.

Each plate is moving in a different direction, but the exact direction depends on the "reference frame," or viewpoint, in which you are looking at the motion. The background to this question is the fact that there are 14 major tectonic plates on Earth: the Pacific, North America, South America, Eurasia, India, Australia, Africa, Antarctica, Cocos, Nazca, Juan de Fuca, Caribbean, Philippine, and Arabia.

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