Caltech biologists invent newer, better methodfor making transgenic animals

Using specially prepared HIV-derived viruses stripped of their disease-causing potential, California Institute of Technology biologist David Baltimore and his team have invented a new method of introducing foreign DNA into animals that could have wide-ranging applications in biotechnology and experimental biology.

The Baltimore team reports, on today's Science Express Web site, on their study of single-cell mouse embryos that have been virally infected in a manner that leaves a new gene from a jellyfish permanently deposited into their genomes.

Astronomers detect atmosphereof planet outside solar system

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have made the first direct detection of the atmosphere of a planet orbiting a star outside our solar system and have obtained the first information about its chemical composition.

Sound alters the activity of visual areas in the human brain,Caltech research reveals

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have discovered that hearing can significantly change visual perception, and that the influence of hearing on visual perception occurs at an early perceptual level rather than at a higher cognitive level.

Ladan Shams, a Caltech postdoctoral researcher, and Shinsuke Shimojo, a professor of computation and neural systems at Caltech report that visual signals are influenced significantly by sounds at early cortical levels that have been believed to be "vision specific."

First gamma burst detected by new NASA satellite is pinpointed at Palomar Observatory

Astrophysicists have combined the Palomar Mountain 200-inch Hale Telescope with the abilities of a new NASA satellite to detect and characterize a gamma-ray burst lying at a distance of only 5 billion light-years from Earth. This is the closest gamma-ray burst ever studied by optical telescopes.

International team uses powerful cosmic lensto find galactic building block in early universe

Exploiting a phenomenon known as gravitational lensing, an international team of astrophysicists has detected a very small, faint stellar system in the process of its formation during the first half billion years or so of the universe's existence.

The discovery is being reported in the October 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal.

Caltech: Combating Future "Bandwidth Bottleneck"

Caltech professor develops powerful technique for detailed 3-D computer graphics.

New research shows that brain is involvedin visual afterimages

If you stare at a bright red disk for a time and then glance away, you'll soon see a green disk of the same size appear and then disappear. The perceived disk is known as an afterimage, and has long been thought to be an effect of the "bleaching" of photochemical pigments or adaptation of neurons in the retina and merely a part of the ocular machinery that makes vision possible.

Astronomers detect evidence of time when universe emerged from "Dark Ages"

Astronomers at the California Institute of Technology announced today the discovery of the long-sought "Cosmic Renaissance," the epoch when young galaxies and quasars in the early universe first broke out of the "Dark Ages" that followed the Big Bang.

"It is very exciting," said Caltech astronomy professor S. George Djorgovski, who led the team that made the discovery. "This was one of the key stages in the history of the universe."

Survival of the Fittest . . . Or the Flattest?

Computer "organisms" challenge conventional Darwinian thinking

Up to 6 million votes lost in 2000 presidential election, Voting Technology Project reveals

Though over 100 million Americans went to the polls on election day 2000, as many as 6 million might just have well have spent the day fishing. Researchers at Caltech and MIT call these "lost votes" and think the number of uncounted votes could easily be cut by more than half in the 2004 election with just three simple reforms.

"This study shows that the voting problem is much worse than we expected," said Caltech president David Baltimore, who initiated the nonpartisan study after the November election debacle.

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