New research shows that brain is involvedin visual afterimages

If you stare at a bright red disk for a time and then glance away, you'll soon see a green disk of the same size appear and then disappear. The perceived disk is known as an afterimage, and has long been thought to be an effect of the "bleaching" of photochemical pigments or adaptation of neurons in the retina and merely a part of the ocular machinery that makes vision possible.

Astronomers detect evidence of time when universe emerged from "Dark Ages"

Astronomers at the California Institute of Technology announced today the discovery of the long-sought "Cosmic Renaissance," the epoch when young galaxies and quasars in the early universe first broke out of the "Dark Ages" that followed the Big Bang.

"It is very exciting," said Caltech astronomy professor S. George Djorgovski, who led the team that made the discovery. "This was one of the key stages in the history of the universe."

Survival of the Fittest . . . Or the Flattest?

Computer "organisms" challenge conventional Darwinian thinking

Up to 6 million votes lost in 2000 presidential election, Voting Technology Project reveals

Though over 100 million Americans went to the polls on election day 2000, as many as 6 million might just have well have spent the day fishing. Researchers at Caltech and MIT call these "lost votes" and think the number of uncounted votes could easily be cut by more than half in the 2004 election with just three simple reforms.

"This study shows that the voting problem is much worse than we expected," said Caltech president David Baltimore, who initiated the nonpartisan study after the November election debacle.

Factors causing high mutations could have led to origin of sexual reproduction, study shows

Biologists have long known the advantages of sexual reproduction to the evolution and survival of species. With a little sex, a fledgling creature is more likely to pass on the good mutations it may have, and more able to deal with the sort of environmental adversity that would send its asexual neighbors floundering into the shallow end of the gene pool.

Caltech researchers successfully raise obeliskwith kite to test theory about ancient pyramids

When people think about the building of the Egyptian pyramids, they probably have a mental image of thousands of slaves laboriously rolling massive stone blocks with logs and levers. But as one Caltech aeronautics professor is demonstrating, the task may have been accomplished by just four or five guys who flew the stones into place with a kite.

Hensen's node in chicken embryos governs movement of neural cells, study shows

For us living creatures with backbones, existence begins as a single fertilized cell that then subdivides and grows into a fetus with many, many cells. But the details of how those cells end up as discrete organs instead of undifferentiated heaps of cells is only now being understood in microscopic detail.

Why, for example, should some of the cells migrate to the region that will become the brain, while others travel netherward to make a spinal cord?

Caltech Uses Fluorescent Protein to Visualize the Work of Living Neurons

Proving that protein synthesis occurs in intact dendrites

Brightest Quasars Inhabit Galaxies withStar-Forming Gas Clouds, Scientists Discover

A team of scientists at the California Institute of Technology and the State University of New York at Stony Brook has found strong evidence that high-luminosity quasar activity in galaxy nuclei is linked to the presence of abundant interstellar gas and high rates of star formation.

In a presentation at the summer meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Caltech astronomy professor Nick Scoville and his colleagues reported today that the most luminous nearby optical quasar galaxies have massive reservoirs of interstellar gas much like the so-called ultraluminous infrared galaxies (or UL

Biochemical "On/Off" Switch Discovered

PASADENA, Ca.— Proteins are the cell's arbiters. In a complex and still largely mysterious cascade of events, proteins tell a cell when to divide and grow—and when to die. To properly control cell behavior, proteins need to be turned on when they are needed, and turned off when they are not. Now a California Institute of Technology biologist and his colleagues have shed important new light on how this takes place in animals and plants.

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