Hydrogen economy might impactEarth's stratosphere, study shows

According to conventional wisdom, hydrogen-fueled cars are environmentally friendly because they emit only water vapor -- a naturally abundant atmospheric gas. But leakage of the hydrogen gas that can fuel such cars could cause problems for the upper atmosphere, new research shows.

In an article appearing this week in the journal Science, researchers from the California Institute of Technology report that the leaked hydrogen gas that would inevitably result from a hydrogen economy, if it accumulates, could indirectly cause as much as a 10-percent decrease in atmospheric ozone.

Astronomers "weigh" pulsar's planets

For the first time, the planets orbiting a pulsar have been "weighed" by measuring precisely variations in the time it takes them to complete an orbit, according to a team of astronomers from the California Institute of Technology and Pennsylvania State University.

Reporting at the summer meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Caltech postdoctoral researcher Maciej Konacki and Penn State astronomy professor Alex Wolszczan announced today that masses of two of the three known planets orbiting a rapidly spinning pulsar 1,500 light-years away in the constellation Virgo have been successf

Why Fearful Animals Flee—or Freeze

Mapping and manipulating the neural circuits involved in such innate behaviors as fear.

Caltech biology professor to directresearch program on brain signaling

California Institute of Technology biologist Mary Kennedy has been named project director for a $4 million federal project grant to better understand how the brain processes signals. Progress could lead to new insights into how drugs can be better custom-designed to treat a host of neurodegenerative disorders, mental illnesses, and disabilities, including Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.

The funding will come from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

New Insight Into How Flies Fly

April 18, 2003 Science paper shows that tiny insects use their wings to overcome inertia, and not--as conventional wisdom has held--friction.

Astronomers find new evidence aboutuniverse's heaviest phase of star formation

New distance measurements from faraway galaxies further strengthen the view that the strongest burst of star formation in the universe occurred about two billion years after the Big Bang.

Reporting in the April 17 issue of the journal Nature, California Institute of Technology astronomers Scott Chapman and Andrew Blain, along with their United Kingdom colleagues Ian Smail and Rob Ivison, provide the redshifts of 10 extremely distant galaxies which strongly suggest that the most luminous galaxies ever detected were produced over a rather short period of time.

Discovery of giant planar Hall effect could herald a generation of "spintronics" devices

A basic discovery in magnetic semiconductors could result in a new generation of devices for sensors and memory applications -- and perhaps, ultimately, quantum computation -- physicists from the California Institute of Technology and the University of California at Santa Barbara have announced.

The new phenomenon, called the giant planar Hall effect, has to do with what happens when the spins of current-carrying electrons are manipulated.

Science begins for LIGO in questto detect gravitational waves

Armed with one of the most advanced scientific instruments of all time, physicists are now watching the universe intently for the first evidence of gravitational waves. First predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916 as a consequence of the general theory of relativity, gravitational waves have never been detected directly.

In Einstein's theory, alterations in the shape of concentrations of mass (or energy) have the effect of warping space-time, thereby causing distortions that propagate through the universe at the speed of light.

Caltech applied physicists invent waveguideto bypass diffraction limits for new optical devices

Four hundred years ago, a scientist could peer into one of the newfangled optical microscopes and see microorganisms, but nothing much smaller. Nowadays, a scientist can look in the latest generation of lens-based optical microscopes and also see, well, microorganisms, but nothing much smaller. The limiting factor has always been a fundamental property of the wave nature of light that fuzzes out images of objects much smaller than the wavelength of the light that illuminates those objects. This has hampered the ability to make and use optical devices smaller than the wavelength.

Quick action by astronomers worldwide leadsto new insights on mysterious gamma-ray bursts

Scientists "arriving quickly on the scene" of an October 4 gamma-ray burst have announced that their rapid accumulation of data has provided new insights about this exotic astrophysical phenomenon. The researchers have seen, for the first time, ongoing energizing of the burst afterglow for more than half an hour after the initial explosion.

The findings support the "collapsar" model, in which the core of a star 15 times more massive than the sun collapses into a black hole.

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