Bacterial "Syringe" Necessary for Marine Animal Development

"It was a tremendous surprise that the agent that drives metamorphosis is such an elaborate, well-organized injection machine," says coauthor Grant Jensen.

Assessing Others: Evaluating the Expertise of Humans and Computer Algorithms

The subjects were asked to observe the shifting value of a hypothetical financial asset and make predictions about whether it would go up or down, while simultaneously interacting with an "expert" who was also making predictions.

Megafloods: What They Leave Behind

South-central Idaho and the surface of Mars have an interesting geological feature in common: amphitheater-headed canyons. These U-shaped canyons with tall vertical headwalls are found near the Snake River in Idaho as well as on the surface of Mars, according to photographs taken by satellites.

New Curiosity Papers Published

New research articles on the Mars Science Laboratory mission have recently been published.

First Rock Dating Experiment Performed on Mars

Although researchers have determined the ages of rocks from other planetary bodies, the actual experiments—like analyzing meteorites and moon rocks—have always been done on Earth. Now, for the first time, researchers have successfully determined the age of a Martian rock—with experiments performed on Mars.

Probiotic Therapy Alleviates Autism-like Behaviors in Mice

"Traditional research has studied autism as a genetic disorder and a disorder of the brain, but our work shows that gut bacteria may contribute to ASD-like symptoms in ways that were previously unappreciated," says Sarkis Mazmanian.

Himiko and the Cosmic Dawn

Himiko, a "space blob" named after a legendary queen from ancient Japan, is a simply enormous galaxy, with a hot glowing gaseous halo extending over 55,000 light-years. Not only is Himiko very large, it is extraordinarily distant, seen at a time approximately 800 million years after the Big Bang.

Focusing on Faces

A group of researchers led by Caltech neuroscientist Ralph Adolphs has made the first recordings of the firings of single neurons in the brains of autistic individuals, and has found specific neurons in a region called the amygdala that show reduced processing of the eye region of faces.

SlipChip Counts Molecules with Chemistry and a Cell Phone

In developing nations, rural areas, and even one's own home, limited access to expensive equipment and trained medical professionals can impede the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Many qualitative tests that provide a simple "yes" or "no" answer (like an at-home pregnancy test) have been optimized for use in these resource-limited settings. But few quantitative tests—those able to measure the precise concentration of biomolecules, not just their presence or absence—can be done outside of a laboratory or clinical setting.

From One Collapsing Star, Two Black Holes Form and Fuse

Black holes—massive objects in space with gravitational forces so strong that not even light can escape them—come in a variety of sizes. On the smaller end of the scale are the stellar-mass black holes that are formed during the deaths of stars. At the larger end are supermassive black holes, which contain up to one billion times the mass of our sun. Over billions of years, small black holes can slowly grow into the supermassive variety by taking on mass from their surroundings and also by merging with other black holes.

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