Caltech Faculty Member Named Scientist of the Year

PASADENA, Calif. — The California Science Center has announced the joint selection of Andrew Lange and Saul Perlmutter as 2003 California Scientist of the Year.

Lange is Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, and Perlmutter is senior scientist and group leader at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley. Using two very different techniques, Lange and Perlmutter's experimental efforts have confirmed a remarkable theory of how the universe expanded and evolved after the "big bang."

Caltech astrophysicist Shrinivas Kulkarni electedto National Academy of Sciences

Shrinivas Kulkarni, who is the MacArthur Professor of Astronomy and Planetary Science at the California Institute of Technology, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

Astronomers find new evidence aboutuniverse's heaviest phase of star formation

New distance measurements from faraway galaxies further strengthen the view that the strongest burst of star formation in the universe occurred about two billion years after the Big Bang.

Reporting in the April 17 issue of the journal Nature, California Institute of Technology astronomers Scott Chapman and Andrew Blain, along with their United Kingdom colleagues Ian Smail and Rob Ivison, provide the redshifts of 10 extremely distant galaxies which strongly suggest that the most luminous galaxies ever detected were produced over a rather short period of time.

Discovery of giant planar Hall effect could herald a generation of "spintronics" devices

A basic discovery in magnetic semiconductors could result in a new generation of devices for sensors and memory applications -- and perhaps, ultimately, quantum computation -- physicists from the California Institute of Technology and the University of California at Santa Barbara have announced.

The new phenomenon, called the giant planar Hall effect, has to do with what happens when the spins of current-carrying electrons are manipulated.

Six Caltech Professors Awarded Sloan Research Fellowships

Six Caltech professors recently received Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowships for 2003.

Quick action by astronomers worldwide leadsto new insights on mysterious gamma-ray bursts

Scientists "arriving quickly on the scene" of an October 4 gamma-ray burst have announced that their rapid accumulation of data has provided new insights about this exotic astrophysical phenomenon. The researchers have seen, for the first time, ongoing energizing of the burst afterglow for more than half an hour after the initial explosion.

The findings support the "collapsar" model, in which the core of a star 15 times more massive than the sun collapses into a black hole.

Caltech computer scientists develop FAST protocol to speed up Internet

Caltech computer scientists have developed a new data transfer protocol for the Internet fast enough to download a full-length DVD movie in less than five seconds.

The protocol is called FAST, standing for Fast Active queue management Scalable Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The researchers have achieved a speed of 8,609 megabits per second (Mbps) by using 10 simultaneous flows of data over routed paths, the largest aggregate throughput ever accomplished in such a configuration.

Nanodevice breaks 1-GHz barrier

Nanoscientists have achieved a milestone in their burgeoning field by creating a device that vibrates a billion times per second, or at one gigahertz (1 GHz).

Earthbound experiment confirms theory accounting for sun's scarcity of neutrinos

In the subatomic particle family, the neutrino is a bit like a wayward red-haired stepson. Neutrinos were long ago detected-and even longer ago predicted to exist-but everything physicists know about nuclear processes says there should be a certain number of neutrinos streaming from the sun, yet there are nowhere near enough.

Caltech astronomer Jesse Greenstein dies; was early investigator of quasars, white dwarfs

Jesse L. Greenstein, an astrophysicist whose many accomplishments included seminal work on the nature of quasars, died Monday, October 21, 2002, three days after falling and breaking his hip. He was 93.

A native of New York City, Greenstein grew up in a family that actively encouraged his scientific interests. At the age of eight he received a brass telescope from his grandfather—not an unusual gift for an American child, but Greenstein soon was also experimenting in earnest with his own prism spectroscope, an arc, a rotary spark, a rectifier, and a radio transmitter.

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