David Politzer Wins Nobel Prize in Physics

Hugh David Politzer has won the 2004 Nobel Prize in physics for work he began as a graduate student on how the elementary particles known as quarks are bound together to form the protons and neutrons of atomic nuclei. The announcement was made today by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Caltech Physicists Achieve Measurement on a Single Magnetic Domain Wall

Physicists for several years have been predicting a new age of semiconductor devices that operate by subtle changes in the orientation of electron spins. Known as "spintronics," the field relies on an intricate knowledge of the magnetic properties of materials and of how magnetic moments can be manipulated.

International Team of Scientists Establishes New Internet Land-Speed Benchmark

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), along with colleagues at AMD, Cisco, Microsoft Research, Newisys, and S2io have set a new Internet2 land-speed record. The team transferred 859 gigabytes of data in less than 17 minutes at a rate of 6.63 gigabits per second between the CERN facility in Geneva, Switzerland, and Caltech in Pasadena, California, a distance of more than 15,766 kilometers. The speed is equivalent to transferring a full-length DVD movie in just four seconds.

Gamma-ray burst of December 3 was a new type of cosmic explosion

Astronomers have identified a new class of cosmic explosions that are more powerful than supernovae but considerably weaker than most gamma-ray bursts. The discovery strongly suggests a continuum between the two previously-known classes of explosions.

Physicists Successful in Trapping Ultracold Neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Free neutrons are usually pretty speedy customers, buzzing along at a significant fraction of the speed of light. But physicists have created a new process to slow neutrons down to about 15 miles per hour—the pace of a world-class mile runner—which could lead to breakthroughs in understanding the physical universe at its most fundamental level.

From Cosmos to Climate, Six Caltech Professors Awarded Sloan Research Fellowships

Six members of the Caltech faculty have received Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowships for 2004.

Caltech, Cornell announce new $2-million study for building giant submillimeter telescope

The California Institute of Technology and Cornell University are in the planning stages for a new 25-meter telescope to be built in Chile. The submillimeter telescope will cost an estimated $60 million and will be nearly two times larger in diameter than the largest submillimeter telescope currently in existence.

Researchers Using Hubble and Keck Telescopes Find Farthest Known Galaxy in the Universe

PASADENA, California--The farthest known object in the universe may have been discovered by a team of astrophysicists using the Keck and Hubble telescopes. The object, a galaxy behind the Abell 2218 cluster, may be so far from Earth that its light would have left when the universe was just 750 million years old.

The discovery demonstrates again that the technique known as gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for better understanding the origin of the universe.

Astronomers measure distance to star celebrated in ancient literature and legend

PASADENA—The cluster of stars known as the Pleiades is one of the most recognizable objects in the night sky, and for millennia has been celebrated in literature and legend. Now, a group of astronomers has obtained a highly accurate distance to one of the stars of the Pleiades known since antiquity as Atlas. The new results will be useful in the longstanding effort to improve the cosmic distance scale, as well as to research the stellar life-cycle.

The coming global peak in oil productionis a grave concern, according to new book

Ancient Persians tipped their fire arrows with it, and Native Americans doctored their ails with it. Any way you look at petroleum, the stuff has been around for a long time. Problem is, it's not going to be around much longer--or at least not in the quantities necessary to keep our Hummers humming.

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