Elachi to Retire as JPL Director

Charles Elachi (MS '69, PhD '71) has announced his intention to retire as director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on June 30, 2016, and move to campus as professor emeritus. A national search is underway to identify his successor.

"A frequently consulted national and international expert on space science, Charles is known for his broad expertise, boundless energy, conceptual acuity, and deep devotion to JPL, campus, and NASA," said Caltech president Thomas F. Rosenbaum in a statement to the Caltech community. "Over the course of his 45-year career at JPL, Charles has tirelessly pursued new opportunities, enhanced the Laboratory, and demonstrated expert and nimble leadership. Under Charles' leadership over the last 15 years, JPL has become a prized performer in the NASA system and is widely regarded as a model for conceiving and implementing robotic space science missions."

With Elachi at JPL's helm, an array of missions has provided new understanding of our planet, our moon, our sun, our solar system, and the larger universe. The GRAIL mission mapped the moon's gravity; the Genesis space probe returned to Earth samples of the solar wind; Deep Impact intentionally collided with a comet; Dawn pioneered the use of ion propulsion to visit the asteroids Ceres and Vesta; and Voyager became the first human-made object to reach interstellar space. A suite of missions to Mars, from orbiters to the rovers Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity, has provided exquisite detail of the red planet; Cassini continues its exploration of Saturn and its moons; and the Juno spacecraft, en route to a July 2016 rendezvous, promises to provide new insights about Jupiter. Missions such as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the Spitzer Space Telescope, Kepler, WISE, and NuSTAR have revolutionized our understanding of our place in the universe.

Future JPL missions developed under Elachi's guidance include Mars 2020, Europa Clipper, the Asteroid Redirect Mission, Jason 3, Aquarius, OCO-2, SWOT, and NISAR.

Elachi joined JPL in 1970 as a student intern and was appointed director and Caltech vice president in 2001. During his more than four decades at JPL, he led a team that pioneered the use of space-based radar imaging of the Earth and the planets, served as principal investigator on a number of NASA-sponsored studies and flight projects, authored more than 230 publications in the fields of active microwave remote sensing and electromagnetic theory, received several patents, and became the director for space and earth science missions and instruments. At Caltech, he taught a course on the physics of remote sensing for nearly 20 years

Born in Lebanon, Elachi received his B.Sc. ('68) in physics from University of Grenoble, France and the Dipl. Ing. ('68) in engineering from the Polytechnic Institute, Grenoble. In addition to his MS and PhD degrees in electrical science from Caltech, he also holds an MBA from the University of Southern California and a master's degree in geology from UCLA.

Elachi was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1989 and is the recipient of numerous other awards including an honorary doctorate from the American University of Beirut (2013), the National Academy of Engineering Arthur M. Bueche Award (2011), the Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur from the French Republic (2011), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Carl Sagan Award (2011), the Royal Society of London Massey Award (2006), the Lebanon Order of Cedars (2006 and 2012), the International von Kármán Wings Award (2007), the American Astronautical Society Space Flight Award (2005), the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (2004, 2002, 1994), and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1999).

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He will move to campus as professor emeritus. A national search is underway to identify his successor.
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Probing the Mysterious Perceptual World of Autism

New research looks at what people with Autism Spectrum Disorder pay attention to in the real world.

The perceptual world of a person with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unique. Beginning in infancy, people who have ASD observe and interpret images and social cues differently than others. Caltech researchers now have new insight into just how this occurs, research that eventually may help doctors diagnose, and more effectively treat, the various forms of the disorder. The work is detailed in a study published in the October 22 issue of the journal Neuron.

Symptoms of ASD include impaired social interaction, compromised communication skills, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. Research suggests that some of these behaviors are influenced by how an individual with ASD senses, attends to, and perceives the world.

The new study investigated how visual input is interpreted in the brain of someone with ASD. In particular, it examined the validity of long-standing assumptions about the condition, including the belief that those with ASD often miss facial cues, contributing to their inability to respond appropriately in social situations.

"Among other findings, our work shows that the story is not as simple as saying 'people with ASD don't look normally at faces.' They don't look at most things in a typical way," says Ralph Adolphs, the Bren Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience and professor of biology, in whose lab the study was done. Indeed, the researchers found that people with ASD attend more to nonsocial images, to simple edges and patterns in those images, than to the faces of people.

To reach these determinations, Adolphs and his lab teamed up with Qi Zhao, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at the National University of Singapore, the senior author on the paper, who had developed a detailed method. The researchers showed 700 images to 39 subjects. Twenty of the subjects were high-functioning individuals with ASD, and 19 were control, or "neurotypical," subjects without ASD. The two groups were matched for age, race, gender, educational level, and IQ. Each subject viewed each image for three seconds while an eye-tracking device recorded their attention patterns on objects depicted in the images.

Unlike the abstract representations of single objects or faces that have been commonly used in such studies, the images that Adolphs and his team presented contained combinations of more than 5,500 real-world elements—common objects like people, trees, and furniture as well as less common items like knives and flames—in natural settings, mimicking the scenes that a person might observe in day-to-day life.

"Complex images of natural scenes were a big part of this unique approach," says first-author Shuo Wang (PhD '14), a postdoctoral fellow at Caltech. The images were shown to subjects in a rich semantic context, "which simply means showing a scene that makes sense," he explains. "I could make an equally complex scene with Photoshop by combining some random objects such as a beach ball, a hamburger, a Frisbee, a forest, and a plane, but that grouping of objects doesn't have a meaning—there is no story demonstrated. Having objects that are related in a natural way and that show something meaningful provides the semantic context. It is a real-world approach."

In addition to validating previous studies that showed, for example, that individuals with ASD are less drawn to faces than control subjects, the new study found that these subjects were strongly attracted to the center of images, regardless of the content placed there. Similarly, they tended to focus their gaze on objects that stood out—for example, due to differences in color and contrast—rather than on faces. Take, for example, one image from the study showing two people talking with one facing the camera and the other facing away so that only the back of their head is visible. Control subjects concentrated on the visible face, whereas ASD subjects attended equally to the face and the back of the other person's head.

"The study is probably most useful for informing diagnosis," Adolphs says. "Autism is many things. Our study is one initial step in trying to discover what kinds of different autisms there actually are. The next step is to see if all people with ASD show the kind of pattern we found. There are probably differences between individual people with ASD, and those differences could relate to differences in diagnosis, for instance, revealing subtypes of autism. Once we have identified those subtypes, we can begin to ask if different kinds of treatment might be best for each kind of subtype."

Adolphs plans to continue this type of research using functional magnetic resonance imaging scans to track the brain activity of people with ASD while they are viewing images in laboratory settings similar to what was used in this study.

The paper, "Atypical Visual Saliency in Autism Spectrum Disorder Quantified through Model-Based Eye Tracking," was coauthored by Shuo Wang and Ralph Adolphs at Caltech; Ming Jiang and Qi Zhao from the National University of Singapore; Xavier Morin Duchesne and Daniel P. Kennedy of Indiana University, Bloomington; and Elizabeth A. Laugeson from UCLA.

The research was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Autism Science Foundation, a Fonds de Recherche du Québec en Nature et Technologies predoctoral fellowship, a National Institutes of Health Grant and National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression Young Investigator Grant, a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to the Caltech Conte Center for the Neurobiology of Social Decision Making, a grant from the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, and Singapore's Defense Innovative Research Program and the Singapore Ministry of Education's Academic Research Fund Tier 2.

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Patterns of Attention
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Patterns of Attention of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
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New research into autism, utilizing complex real-world images, provides enhanced understanding of how people with autism attend to visual cues.
Friday, October 30, 2015
Beckman Institute Auditorium – Beckman Institute

Teaching Statement Workshop

Supporting Academic Writers at Caltech

Caltech scholars and students are developing their skills as scientists every day—but they also are honing their skills as academic writers. To this end, the Hixon Writing Center provides collaborative and interactive one-to-one tutoring sessions for students who wish to improve their writing, as well as consultation and feedback for faculty interested in developing their use of student writing in the classroom. It also conducts presentations and workshops, and holds events related to academic writing. Led by Susanne Hall, the Campus Writing Coordinator, the Center employs both undergraduate peer tutors and professional writing specialists.

In 2015, the Center received support from the Moore-Hufstedler Fund to create a series of videos that aim to introduce incoming freshmen to college writing. In addition to practical advice about techniques and the writing process, the videos also feature brief interviews with faculty and students about their experiences with academic writing.

"Scientists and engineers know that writing and communication are fundamental to their work and that there are many varied occasions for writing in their fields," Hall says. "These videos introduce our incoming students to this reality and then offer them concrete instructional support as they transition to college writing. The videos address the challenges we know many students face, so putting this information online is one more way we hope to support Caltech students' continued growth as writers during their time here."

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Toward a Smarter Grid

Steven Low, professor of computer science and electrical engineering at Caltech, says we are on the cusp of a historic transformation—a restructuring of the energy system similar to the reimagining and revamping that the communication and computer networks experienced over the last two decades, making them layered, with distributed and interconnected intelligence everywhere.

The power network of the future—aka the smart grid—will have to be much more dynamic and responsive than the current electric grid, handling tremendous loads while incorporating intermittent energy production from renewable resources such as wind and solar, all while ensuring that when you or I flip a switch at home or work, the power still comes on without fail.

The smart grid will also be much more distributed than the current network, which controls a relatively small number of generators to provide power to millions of passive endpoints—the computers, machines, buildings, and more that simply consume energy. In the future, thanks to inexpensive sensors and computers, many of those endpoints will become active and intelligent loads like smart devices, or distributed generators such as solar panels and wind turbines. These endpoints will be able to generate, sense, communicate, compute, and respond.

Given these trends, Low says, it is only reasonable to conclude that in the coming decades, the electrical system is likely to become "the largest and most complex cyberphysical system ever seen." And that presents both a risk and an opportunity. On the one hand, if the larger, more active system is not controlled correctly, blackouts could be much more frequent. On the other hand, if properly managed, it could greatly improve efficiency, security, robustness, and sustainability.

At Caltech, Low and an interdisciplinary group of engineers, economists, mathematicians, and computer scientists pulled together by the Resnick Sustainability Institute, along with partners like Southern California Edison and the Department of Energy, are working to develop the devices, systems, theories, and algorithms to help guide this historic transformation and make sure that it is properly managed.

In 2012, the Resnick Sustainability Institute issued a report titled Grid 2020: Towards a Policy of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources, which focused on some of the major engineering, economic, and policy issues of the smart grid. That report led to a discussion series and working sessions that in turn led to the publication in 2014 of another report called More Than Smart: A Framework to Make the Distribution Grid More Open, Efficient and Resilient.

"One thing that makes the smart grid problem particularly appealing for us is that you can't solve it just as an engineer, just as a computer scientist, just as a control theorist, or just as an economist," says Adam Wierman, professor of computer science and Executive Officer for the Computing and Mathematical Sciences Department. "You actually have to bring to bear tools from all of these areas to solve the problem."

For example, he says, consider the problem of determining how much power various parts of the grid should generate at a particular time. This requires generating an amount of power that matches or closely approximates the amount of electricity demanded by customers. Currently this involves predicting electricity demand a day in advance, updating that prediction several hours before it is needed, and then figuring out how much nuclear power, natural gas, or coal will be produced to meet the demand. That determination is made through markets. In California, the California Independent System Operator runs a day-ahead electricity market in which utility companies and power plants buy and sell power generation for the following day. Then any small errors in the prediction are fixed at the last minute by engineers in a control office, with markets completely out of the picture.

"So you have a balance between the robustness and certainty provided by engineered control and the efficiency provided by markets and economic control," says Wierman. "But when renewable energy comes onto the table, all of a sudden the predictions of energy production are much less accurate, so the interaction between the markets and the engineering is up in the air, and no one knows how to handle this well." This, he says, is the type of problem the Caltech team, with its interdisciplinary approach, is uniquely equipped to address.

Indeed, the Caltech smart grid team is working on projects on the engineering side, projects on the markets side, and projects at the interface.

On the engineering side, a major project has revolved around a complex mathematical problem called optimal power flow that underlies many questions dealing with power system operations and planning. "Optimal power flow can tell you when things should be on or conserving energy, how to stabilize the voltage in the network as solar or wind generation fluctuates, or how to set your thermostat so that you maintain comfort in your building while stabilizing the voltage on the grid," explains Mani Chandy, the Simon Ramo Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus. "The problem has been around for 50 years but is extremely difficult to solve."

Chandy worked with Low; John Doyle, the Jean-Lou Chameau Professor of Control and Dynamical Systems, Electrical Engineering, and Bioengineering; and a number of Caltech students to devise a clever way to solve the problem, allowing them, for the first time, to compute a solution and then check whether that solution is globally optimal.

"We said, let's relax the constraints and optimize the cost over a bigger set that we can design to be solvable," explains Low. For example, if a customer is consuming electricity at a single location, the problem might ask how much electricity that individual is actually consuming; a relaxation would say that that person is consuming no more than a certain amount—it is a way of adding flexibility to a problem with tight constraints. "Almost magically, it turns out that if I design my physical set in a clever way, the solution for this larger simple set turns out to be the same as it would be for the original set."

The new approach produces a feasible solution for almost all distribution systems—the low-voltage networks that take power from larger substations and ultimately deliver it to the houses, buildings, street lights, and so on in a region. "That's important because many of the innovations in the energy sector in the coming decade will happen on distribution systems," says Low.

Another Caltech project attempts to predict how many home and business owners are likely to adopt rooftop solar panels over the next 5, 10, 20, or 30 years. In Southern California, the number of solar installations has increased steadily for several years. For planning purposes, utility companies need to anticipate whether that growth will continue and at what pace. For example, Low says, if the network is eventually going to comprise 15 or 20 percent renewables, then the current grid is robust enough. "But if we are going to have 50 or 80 percent renewables," he says, "then the grid will need huge changes in terms of both engineering and market design."

Working with Chandy, graduate students Desmond Cai and Anish Agarwal (BS '13, MS '15) developed a new model for predicting how many homes and businesses will install rooftop solar panels. The model has proven highly accurate. Researchers believe that whether or not people "go solar" depends largely on two factors: how much money they will save and their confidence in the new technology. The Caltech model, completed in 2012, indicates that the amount of money that people can save by installing rooftop solar has a huge influence on whether they will adopt the technology. Based on their research, the team has also developed a web-based tool that predicts how many people will install solar panels using a utility company's data. Southern California Edison's planning department is actively using the tool.

On the markets side, Caltech researchers are doing theoretical work looking at the smart grid and the network of markets it will produce. Electricity markets can be both complicated and interesting to study because unlike a traditional market—a single place where people go to buy and sell something—the electricity "market" actually consists of many networked marketplaces interacting in complicated ways.

One potential problem with this system and the introduction of more renewables, Wierman says, is that it opens the door for firms to manipulate prices by turning off generators. Whereas the operational status of a normal generator can be monitored, with solar and wind power, it is nearly impossible to verify how much power should have been produced because it is difficult to know whether it was windy or sunny at a certain time. "For example, you can significantly impact prices by pushing—or not pushing—solar energy from your solar farm," Wierman says. "There are huge opportunities for strongly manipulating market structure and prices in these environments. We are beginning to look at how to redesign markets so that this isn't as powerful or as dangerous."

An area of smart grid research where the Caltech team takes full advantage of its multidisciplinary nature is at the interface of engineering and markets. One example is a concept known as demand response, in which a mismatch between energy supply and demand can be addressed from the demand side (that is, by involving consumers), rather than from the power-generation side.

As an example of demand response, some utilities have started programs where participants, who have smart thermostats installed in their homes in exchange for some monetary reward, allow the company to turn off their air conditioners for a short period of time when it is necessary to reduce the demand on the grid. In that way, household air conditioners become "shock absorbers" for the system.

"But the economist says wait a minute, that's really inefficient. You might be turning the AC off for people who desperately want it on and leaving it on for people who couldn't care less," says John Ledyard, the Allen and Lenabelle Davis Professor of Economics and Social Sciences. A counter proposal is called Prices to Devices, where the utility sends price signals to devices, like thermostats, in homes and offices, and customers decide if they want to pay for power at those prices. Ledyard says while that is efficient rationing in equilibrium, it introduces a delay between the consumer and the utility, creating an instability in the dynamics of the system.

The Caltech team has devised an intermediate proposal that removes the delay in the system. Rather than sending a price and having consumers react to it, their program has consumers enter their sensitivity to various prices ahead of time, right on their smart devices. This can be done with a single number. Then those devices deliver that information to the algorithm that operates the network. For example, a consumer might program his or her smart thermostat, to effectively say, "If a kilowatt of power costs $1 and the temperature outside is 90 degrees, I want you to keep the air conditioner on; if the price is $5 and the temperature outside is 80 degrees, go ahead and turn it off."

"The consumer's response is handled by the algorithm, so there's no lag," says Ledyard.

Currently, the Caltech smart grid team is working closely with Southern California Edison to set up a pilot test in Orange County involving several thousand households. The homes will be equipped with various distributed energy resources including rooftop solar panels, electric vehicles, smart thermostats for air conditioners, and pool pumps. The team's new approach to the optimal power flow problem and demand response will be tested to see whether it can keep stable a miniature version of the future smart grid.

Such experiments are crucial for preparing for the major changes to the electrical system that are certainly coming down the road, Low says. "The stakes are high. In the face of this historic transformation, we need to do all that we can to minimize the risk and make sure that we realize the full potential."

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Friday, November 13, 2015 to Saturday, November 14, 2015

New Directions in Applied Microeconomics: Theory and Evidence

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The Caltech–Huntington Library Materialities, Texts and Images Collaboration Opens Its Final Chapter

Two scholars are nearing the end of a yearlong journey into history, utilizing the humanities expertise of Caltech and the archival holdings of the Huntington Library, just a mile distant. Now in its third year, the Materialities, Texts and Images (MTI) program is part of a long-standing collaboration between the two institutions. Started by John Brewer, the Eli and Edye Broad Professor of Humanities and Social Sciences, in collaboration with Steve Hindle, the W. M. Keck Foundation Director of Research at the Huntington, MTI has allowed the two visiting scholars, Julie Park, an associate professor for research at Vassar College, and Susan Barbour, a lecturer at Somerville College, University of Oxford, to examine the Huntington's collections in support of their research. The holdings include art, literature, and personal and business correspondence from Western European and American society, dating from the Middle Ages through the 20th century.

"John Brewer established the MTI program based on his belief that the humanities should be more than the sum of the parts," says Jean-Laurent Rosenthal, the Rea A. and Lela G. Axline Professor of Business Economics and chair of the Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences. "At Caltech, there has always been the idea that we can bring a bunch of people together to solve interesting problems in science, engineering, and social science. So John thought, why not do the same in the humanities? The MTI program really showed that this can be very productive."

Hindle shares leadership of the collaboration. "MTI was designed to bring an institutional structure to a series of relationships between the Huntington and Caltech that had in the past been relatively informal and interpersonal," he says. "Each year we have appointed two postdoctoral researchers, and they split the time in the program between the two institutions. It's been immensely successful."

At the core of the MTI program is the study of things—actual objects—within the context of Western European history. These can include books, paintings, manuscripts, and even calling cards (the Huntington has one of the largest collections of 18th- and 19th-century calling cards in the world). Anything that represents a material form of communication or authorship can be studied. What messages did these items convey and how did they do so? What do the objects show us about their authors or creators? How have the processes involved in their creation altered this message, and what does that communicate to the end-user? These are some of the research areas that exist within the MTI program.

"Things and materiality have really become a very hot topic in the humanities and social sciences," says Park. "I think it's really beautiful the way the two areas have come together. It's a truly interdisciplinary area."

Park's MTI project examined the physical and material environment of mental life in 18th-century England, and the relationship between those environments and the rise of the novel. The 18th-century English novel re-created how people saw the world around them, in particular the insides of homes and public spaces. "I'm looking at both the literary genre of the novel and the material environment that works with what was then a new construction of physical space that the novel represented," she explains.

Barbour has also focused on materiality, largely through the writings of Susan Howe, a 20th-century painter, writer, and poet. Howe's wide range of artistic expression, which includes poetry, criticism, and music, lends itself to interpretation via materiality, Barbour notes. "Howe investigates disparities between handwritten documents and printed text," she says. "She looks at the blots, drawings, and other material signifiers that are not included in mechanical reproduction and that only exist in the original document. These become emblematic of the way individual lives and stories are lost to historical narratives driven by utility and relevance." In other words, commercial reproductions and other mass-produced examples of an artist's work cannot convey the full range of the artist's expression—due, as least in part, to the material differences between the originals and the representations.

The working relationship between Caltech and the Huntington has specific advantages, Barbour says. "The experience of being one of a smaller group of nonscientific 'others' at a scientific institute has distinct benefits," she says. "Because the humanities and social sciences department is at once smaller and broader, one hones the ability to appreciate overlapping methodologies of research projects that at first glance may bear little in common with one another."

Two new researchers began their MTI fellowships last month. Cora Gilroy-Ware, who has curated exhibitions at the London Tate Gallery and the Huntington Art Gallery, will be exploring the material and chemical properties of classical painting and sculpture in 18th- and 19th-century Britain, investigating how the artist's technical processes were shaped by economic and socio-political developments. Alexandre Dubé, an assistant professor of art history at Washington University in St. Louis, will research how the buying and selling of goods in French Louisiana during the colonial period affected the politics of the time.

The new fellowship appointments represent the final chapter of the MTI program, but not of Caltech's partnership with the Huntington. A continuing collaboration within the humanities is now under development and will be inaugurated when MTI concludes in June, 2016. 

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A Journey into History
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The Caltech-Huntington Materialities, Texts and Images collaboration is about to open its final chapter.
Wednesday, November 11, 2015
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space) – Center for Student Services

Communication Strategies for Tutoring and Office Hours

Friday, October 23, 2015
Winnett Lounge – Winnett Student Center

TeachWeek Caltech Capstone Panel

Friday, October 16, 2015
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space) – Center for Student Services

Course Ombudsperson Training, Fall 2015

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