Corals Provide Clues for Climate Change Research

Just as growth rings can offer insight into climate changes occurring during the lifespan of a tree, corals have much to tell about changes in the ocean. At Caltech, climate scientists Jess F. Adkins and Nivedita Thiagarajan use manned submersibles, like Alvin operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, to dive thousands of meters below the surface to collect these specimens—and to shed new light on the connection between variance in carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the deep ocean and historical glacial cycles.

Caltech-Led Team Develops a Geothermometer for Methane Formation

A team of scientists led by Caltech geochemist John M. Eiler has developed a new technique that can, for the first time, determine the temperature at which a natural methane sample formed.

Earth-Building Bridgmanite

"The most abundant mineral of the earth now has an official name," says Chi Ma, a mineralogist and director of the Geological and Planetary Sciences division's Analytical Facility at Caltech.

Caltech Faculty Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The AAAS has elected three Caltech faculty members—John Brady, Kenneth Farley, and Fiona Harrison—as fellows. Also named to the academy was Katherine T. Faber, who will be joining the Caltech faculty in July.

Spring Break in the Galápagos

As the final element of Evolution, Caltech's new Bi/Ge 105 course, a dozen students spent their spring break snorkeling with penguins and sharks, hiking a volcano, and otherwise taking in the natural laboratory for evolution that is the Galápagos Islands.

Spring Break in the Galápagos

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Spring Break in the Galápagos
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Credit: Kevin Yu

As the culminating event of the new Evolution course at Caltech, a dozen Techers, their TA, and two professors—Rob Phillips and Victoria Orphan—spent a week of spring break living as field researchers on the Galápagos Islands.

Credit: Kevin Yu

Ecuadorian naturalist Ernesto Vaca led the group in their studies of the natural world on the Galápagos. Here, at Playa Las Bachas on Santa Cruz Island, he is describing the molting of the Sally Lightfoot crab. The students kept scientific journals during the trip, writing down questions and observations along the way.

Credit: Laura Santoso

Marine iguanas are endemic to the Galápagos and are the only modern lizards that swim. They offer an excellent example of the way isolation on islands can lead to unique speciation.

Credit: Jeff Marlow

The group's home base for the trip was the research vessel Daphne, shown here anchored in James Bay.

Credit: Jeff Marlow

The group walks over solidified volcanic ash on Santiago Island.

Credit: Victoria Orphan

Flightlessness is one of the key evolutionary adaptations seen on islands. Here, a flightless cormorant is seen diving to gather food.

Credit: Kevin Yu

The landscape of Cerro Dragón (Dragon Hill) on Santa Cruz Island. This was one of many sites where the students were able to see the impact of invasive species such as goats.

Credit: Laura Santoso

The group's mascot—a Darwin bobblehead doll—posing in front of the third largest oceanic caldera in the world at the Sierra Negra volcano.

Credit: Pushpa Neppala

The Sierra Negra volcano on Santa Cruz Island.

Credit: Jeff Marlow

A young sea lion serves as an unexpected roadblock upon the group's arrival at North Seymour Island.

Credit: Ketaki Panse

A blue-footed booby perched atop a volcanic rock on North Seymour Island.

Credit: Laura Santoso

A land iguana with the island Daphne Minor in the background. One of the central questions about the iguanas on the Galápagos is how they arrived on the islands in the first place.

Credit: Aleena Patel

Part of the group explores a mangrove lagoon in Elizabeth Bay on Isla Isabela. According to Orphan, the mangroves are a nursery for many animals, and she encouraged the students to examine the mangrove roots closely. "Really looking closely, you start to see little transparent shrimp running up and down. There's a lot of richness that you can see even by just sitting and observing," she says.

Credit: Ketaki Panse

A beautiful sunset seen from the top of Bartholomew Island.

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As the final element of Evolution, Caltech's new Bi/Ge 105 course, a dozen students spent their spring break snorkeling with penguins and sharks, hiking a volcano, and otherwise taking in the natural laboratory for evolution that is the Galápagos Islands. The second-term course was created and is taught by Rob Phillips, the Fred and Nancy Morris Professor of Biophysics and Biology, and Victoria Orphan, professor of geobiology, and is designed to give students both a broad picture of evolution and a chance to make their own up-close-and-personal observations.

 

A New Tool for Unscrambling the Rock Record

A lot can happen to a rock over the course of two and a half billion years. It can get buried and heated; fluids remove some of its minerals and precipitate others; its chemistry changes. So if you want to use that rock to learn about the conditions on the early Earth, you have to do some geologic sleuthing: You have to figure out which parts of the rock are original and which came later. That is a tricky task, but now a team of Caltech researchers has developed and applied a unique technique that removes much of the guesswork.

When Rocks Roll: How Sediment Transport Shapes Planetary Surfaces

On Wednesday, March 19, Professor of Geology Michael Lamb will describe how flowing water and grains of sand create Earth's dramatic landscapes.

Airborne Over Iceland: Charting Glacier Dynamics

Mark Simons, professor of geophysics at Caltech, along with graduate student Brent Minchew, recently logged over 40 hours of flight time mapping the surface of Iceland's glaciers. Flying over two comparatively small ice caps, Hofsjökull and Langjökull, they traveled with NASA pilots and engineers in a retrofitted Gulfstream III business jet, crisscrossing the glaciers numerous times.

Michael Gurnis Receives Geology Award

The American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) named Michael Gurnis, Caltech's John E. and Hazel S. Smits Professor of Geophysics, a 2014 recipient of the Wallace E. Pratt Memorial Award.

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