$10 Million Gift Creates Partnership to Fuel Fundamental Research

Dow establishes long-term vision for innovation as founding member of Caltech's Corporate Partners Program

PASADENA, Calif.—In a strategic move to strengthen fundamental science and technology and foster transformational advances in renewable energies, the Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have established a $10 million partnership.

Through the gift—bolstered with funds from the Gordon and Betty Moore Matching Program—Dow, one of the world's leading chemical companies, becomes a founding member of Caltech's Corporate Partners Program. The program is designed to strengthen the connection between the Institute's pioneering research and industry's needs, resulting in science and technology breakthroughs that can more easily and directly reach the community and the world.

"These long-term partnerships—inaugurated so aptly by this continued collaboration with Dow—will seed the sorts of high-risk, high-return innovations in science and engineering for which Caltech is renowned," says Caltech president Jean-Lou Chameau. "It will not only fund great fundamental science, but will also help us translate our findings into a commercial arena more quickly and seamlessly than ever before."

Under the partnership, Dow will provide ongoing support for graduate student research through five endowed fellowships in chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as five endowed fellowships in energy science. It will also provide Caltech's Resnick Sustainability Institute with funding over the next five years, helping to advance cutting-edge, proof-of-concept ideas with the potential to rapidly produce commercial technologies.

In return for its investment—which includes a rare, long-term corporate commitment that will be realized through endowments—Dow will have the opportunity to collaborate with an array of world-class faculty and student researchers.

"It is vital that we support academic research to ensure universities can continue the tradition of excellence in chemical engineering, chemistry, and materials science to address the needs of our industry and the world," says William Banholzer, chief technology officer at Dow. "Excellence in scientific education and the development of innovative solutions go hand in hand."

"Dow appreciates that you have to invest in something if you want to make change happen," says Hanisch Memorial Professor and Professor of Chemistry Jacqueline Barton, chair of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Caltech. "Outstanding research is under way at Caltech, and the best way for Dow to be involved with that work is to invest. The dividends from its investment will be realized over generations."

Dow's gift builds upon a history of collaborative efforts with Caltech. Both Dow and Caltech have demonstrated a strong commitment to developing sustainable solutions for the creation, storage, and distribution of energy, and both understand the crucial role that fundamental science plays in informing game-changing applications.

"Caltech is a model partner," says Theresa Kotanchek, vice president for sustainable technologies and innovation sourcing at Dow. "Together our research teams are uniting to advance fundamental science and simultaneously building and validating scalable prototypes. The pace of our progress is truly record setting."

In 2009, Dow chose Caltech as a partner in a four-year solar-research initiative that was one of the company's largest externally funded research agreements. This agreement has furthered exploration of earth-abundant materials for solar-energy applications, and also established Dow's first endowed graduate research fellowship for students in Caltech's Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

Through this newest partnership, Caltech researchers—and, by extension, Dow—will tackle a "broader portfolio of renewable energies and technologies," says the Resnick Sustainability Institute's director, Harry Atwater, who is Howard Hughes Professor and professor of applied physics and materials science at Caltech. The Resnick Institute's faculty currently pursues research focused on a vast spectrum of topics, including fuel cells, alternative wind power, solar photovoltaics, energy-storage materials, and energy sequestration.

The Resnick Sustainability Institute receives a significant portion of the funding in the agreement. Through the new Dow Chemical Company Bridge/CI2 Innovation Program, financial support will be used to further promising graduate and postdoc research that has the possibility of creating licensable technologies and start-ups. The graduate research fellowships in energy—renewable for up to two years—will help advance clean-energy goals.

"I am excited to see Caltech's efforts materialize in a broad-based manner," Atwater says. "We hope to see this partnership grow to include others as we continue to magnify and amplify our efforts so that we can have a greater impact."

More information about Dow's industry-leading partnership with key academic institutions in the United States can be found at http://www.dow.com/innovation/partnership.

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Shayna Chabner McKinney
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Caltech to Create Clean-Energy Business Competition

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Caltech to create a clean-energy entrepreneurial competition in the western United States. Caltech's winning proposal is one of six that were awarded regionally as part of a three-year, $2 million program to develop competitions that inspire students to come up with innovative business plans involving clean-energy technology.

Caltech, whose award totals $360,000, will lead a consortium of research institutions and business organizations, including UCLA, USC, Chapman University, the Rady School of Management at UC San Diego, and OnGreen, Inc., an energy company. Called First Look West (FLoW), the partnership will also include student leaders from college-campus groups, such as eClubs, Net Impact, and Engineers for a Sustainable World. Working with its partners, Caltech will devise and administer the program, which is sponsored by the Resnick Institute for Science, Energy, and Sustainability. The consortium will oversee the western region of the competition, an area that comprises seven states and two territories.

"The Resnick Institute is excited to work with its university partners to foster clean-energy innovation among young scientists in the western United States," says Harry Atwater, director of the Resnick Institute, and the Howard Hughes Professor and professor of applied physics and materials science.

The competition builds on First Look LA (FLLA), a program organized by Caltech, USC, and UCLA that has been showcasing research and innovation to investors for five years. Caltech's Office of Technology Transfer worked closely with the Resnick Institute to secure the award.

The regional contests will be completed by May 1, 2012. Regional winners, selected by a panel of judges, will each receive $100,000 from the DOE and a chance to compete for a National Grand Prize in the final competition held at the DOE in Washington, D.C. in early summer 2012.

For more information, click here.

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Marcus Woo
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CHIP Hits the Home Stretch

This evening at 11 p.m. EDT, a team of students from Caltech and the Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc) will start unloading CHIP—or the "Compact Hyper-Insulated Prototype" house, Caltech and SCI-Arc's entry in the biennial Solar Decathlon competition in Washington, D.C.—from a flatbed truck and will begin the time-consuming process of reassembling the structure on the National Mall.

"We are all working on 13-hour shifts every day of the week to build the house in time for the competition," says undergrad Cole Hershkowitz, the team's public-relations lead at Caltech.

On September 12, SCI-Arc announced that the project had received a $350,000 cash gift from China-based Hanwha SolarOne Co., Ltd., which provided the solar modules used to power the house, now officially known as the SCI-Arc/Caltech Hanwha Solar CHIP House.

The Solar Decathlon, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), features 19 teams from around the world selected to design and build the most energy-efficient, affordable, and attractive house they can. The event, which begins September 23, is intended to inspire policymakers, industry leaders, and the public to pursue a sustainable future with cutting-edge design and technology.

To read more about CHIPs construction, visit the SCI-Arc/Caltech team's blog For recent images, go to http://twitter.com/#!/CHIP_2011/media/grid.

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Kathy Svitil
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CHIP Goes to Washington

On September 6, after five months of 60-plus-hour weeks of construction—and another two years of planning and design—CHIP, the high-tech house built by a joint team of students from Caltech and the Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), will finally hit the road, en route to Washington D.C. for the biennial Solar Decathlon competition.

The Solar Decathlon, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), features 19 teams from around the world selected to design and build the most energy-efficient, affordable, and attractive house they can. The event, held on the National Mall, is intended to inspire policymakers, industry leaders, and the public to pursue a sustainable future with cutting-edge design and technology.

Over the past few weeks, says Caltech undergraduate student Fei Yang, the team's systems engineer, "construction has been humming along" on CHIP (or, more precisely, "CH:IP," which stands for "Compact Hyper-Insulated Prototype"). "We completed a craning exercise that disassembled and reassembled the whole house on-site. We also completed a series of systems testing that tested and validated the functionality and energy consumption of every engineering system in the house."

So far, all systems are go—and operating with impressive efficiency. For example, using just half of CHIP's array of photovoltaic panels, "we have produced 23 kwh in one day, which is enough to power our entire house for a day in DC," says undergrad Cole Hershkowitz, the team's public relations lead at Caltech.

Earlier in the summer, CHIP's unique heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system—which uses waste heat to pre-heat the house's domestic hot water, saving energy in the process—had been getting "sub-prime results," says Hershkowitz. "The causes for our problem are complex," says Yang, "but in essence, we had capacity issues with our original HVAC condenser, and swapping it out for a bigger one did the trick."

CHIP's "brain," a computer that monitors the house's energy balance to ensure net-zero energy use, is also online, and the iPad interface—imagine the ultimate universal remote—has been completed "and is controlling everything in our house from lights to TV to shades," Hershkowitz says.

On Tuesday, the structure, which has been painstakingly assembled at the SCI-Arc campus in Downtown Los Angeles, will be disassembled and loaded in four pieces onto a flatbed truck for the journey east, accompanied by Hershkowitz and Caltech student Richard Wang. "They are scheduled to arrive in D.C. the following week, on the 11th or 12th," says Yang. Then, he says, the house will be reassembled, "and the remaining furnishing of the interior will be finished. It is going to look fantastic!"

How do the students feel about sending CHIP off on its next adventure? "I am sure it is different for every team member," Yang says, "but personally I am still pretty tense, because the project isn't done until the competition is over. At the same time, sending it off to D.C. concludes a big chapter in the project—and the ensuing respite is much welcomed by everybody."

To read more about CHIPs construction, visit the SCI-Arc/Caltech team's blog.

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Kathy Svitil
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A Wave of New Earth-Science Faculty Joins GPS Division

Recent hires focus on ocean-related research

For Andrew Thompson, assistant professor of environmental science and engineering who joined the Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences in August, growing up in Rhode Island gave him a natural affinity for the ocean. However it wasn't until the summer before his senior year in college that he realized that he could put his fascination for the sea to good use.

"As a kid, I enjoyed math and physics, but thought oceanography was just about studying fish," says Thompson. While attending a summer program at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution before his last undergrad year as an engineering student, however, he discovered that wasn't the case. "I learned there that I could do ocean science from a fluid-dynamics standpoint," he says, "and I fell in love with it."

After earning a BA in engineering sciences from Dartmouth, Thompson went on to receive an MPhil in fluid flow from the University of Cambridge and a PhD in physical oceanography from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego. Thompson then returned to the UK for postdoctoral research stints at the University of East Anglia and the University of Cambridge. Before coming to Caltech, he spent a year as an advanced research fellow at the Natural Environment Research Council's British Antarctic Survey.

Throughout his studies, he never forgot the project at Woods Hole that first inspired him. 

"We looked at the transport of harmful algal blooms that had formed in the Gulf of Maine, which can be a serious economic and public-health problem," remembers Thompson. "The research I do now is actually very similar to that, but working in different regions of the ocean, primarily in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica."

Although Caltech doesn't have a long history of oceanography research, the Institute is striving to look very closely at climate from a holistic viewpoint at the Ronald and Maxine Linde Center for Global Environmental Science, where Thompson will have his lab among other scientists from a broad selection of disciplines. His physical ocean research focuses on eddies in the ocean, which are similar to atmospheric storms except that they happen in the water. They are important for mixing the ocean and transporting heat, chemicals, and biological elements. 

"I'm excited to be part of the Linde + Robinson Laboratory, which will bring people together from a wide range of backgrounds," says Thompson. "I think there will be a really good opportunity to broaden the work I've done and look at some of the implications on a larger scale."

While Thompson studies the way sea storms move things around, Victor Tsai, assistant professor of geophysics, is busy measuring the seismic noise produced by the movements of the ocean—partly from the crashing of waves onto the shore.

"My major focus right now is looking at sources of seismic energy other than earthquakes, and one of the biggest sources is ocean waves," he says. The waves create a noticeable seismic signal that can be recorded at seismic stations on the coast and inland. Analyzing this seismic noise helps researchers understand what makes up Earth's crust by tracking how fast the waves travel and how quickly they lose energy as they move through the earth.

Tsai also studies the effect that sea ice has on the seismic noise of ocean waves, which can give clues into how fast the ice is melting. His innovative research incorporates input from numerous fields, including seismology, geomechanics, glaciology, oceanography, and mathematical geophysics.

For Tsai, the new faculty appointment at Caltech is a bit of a homecoming. He earned a BS in geophysics here in 2004. Although he began his undergrad studies as a physics major, his first research project quickly showed Tsai that physics wasn't for him. He switched to geophysics, and his undergrad advisor was renowned seismologist Hiroo Kanamori, who influenced him to take a different look at the field.

"He had a research project for me that looked at atmospheric wave couplings with the solid earth," says Tsai. "That was my first geophysics project, and it was a bit unusual, since most people in the field aren’t looking at anything related to the atmosphere. I really enjoyed it, so I started to look for nontraditional geophysical problems to work on."

After Caltech, Tsai went on to earn an MA and PhD in Earth and planetary sciences at Harvard University. His postdoctoral work included a two-year Mendenhall Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Geological Hazards Science Center of the USGS in Colorado. In addition to seismic noise, Tsai, a member of Caltech's Seismo Lab, studies a wide variety of solid-earth topics, from the role of fluids in fault zones and understanding glacial earthquakes, to mechanical modeling of seismic events and improving current imaging techniques. He thinks the synergistic nature of the faculty here will help support and nourish his unique research interests.

"I really enjoy the way that people interact at Caltech," says Tsai. "Everyone shares ideas and are open to collaboration." 

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Katie Neith
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Caltech Scientist Awarded Grant to Develop Solar-Powered Sanitation System

PASADENA, Calif.—Environmental scientist and engineer Michael Hoffmann of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has received a $400,000 grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to build a solar-powered portable toilet that could help solve a major health problem in developing countries. The grant, announced July 19 at the AfricaSan 3 sanitation and hygiene conference in Rwanda, will be used to complete the initial design, development, and testing of the unique sustainable system. Designed for use by up to 500 people per day with minimal maintenance, the sanitation unit will have the added benefit of turning waste into fuel.

Hoffmann's concept, called a "Self-Contained, PV-Powered Domestic Toilet and Wastewater Treatment System," is one of eight projects funded through the foundation's "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge." The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced this grant as part of more than $40 million in new investments launching its Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene strategy. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, about 2.6 billion people—approximately 40 percent of the world's population—lack access to safe sanitation, and nearly half of them practice open defecation. In addition, WHO estimates that 1.5 million children die each year from diarrheal disease, which is often caused by poor sanitation.

"Life expectancy correlates to the accessibility of clean water and proper sanitation practices," says Hoffmann, the James Irvine Professor of Environmental Science at Caltech, who has been working for years on the electrochemical technology to create a sustainable toilet and waste-treatment system. "All of our efforts in biomedicine may go for naught if we don't take care of sanitation."

Hoffmann's toilet system could fit inside the typical portable sanitation unit often found at construction sites and recreation areas, but the comparison ends there. It starts with a photovoltaic or solar panel, which converts the sun's rays into enough energy to power an electrochemical reactor that Hoffmann designed to break down water and human waste material into hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas can then be stored in hydrogen fuel cells to provide a backup energy source for nighttime operation or for use under low-sunlight conditions. Hoffmann also envisions equipping the units with self-cleaning toilets that would also be powered by the energy from the sun and fuel cells.

Hoffmann says that he can build a workable unit for $2,000, but that the cost would come down significantly if the toilets were produced in volume. Following production of a prototype under the Gates Foundation grant, Hoffmann hopes to continue the project to refine the system and reduce its cost. In August 2012, all "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" grantees will present their prototypes, with winning projects to receive additional funding for product development, industrial production, and commercialization.

"To address the needs of the 2.6 billion people who don't have access to safe sanitation, we not only must reinvent the toilet, we also must find safe, affordable, and sustainable ways to capture, treat, and recycle human waste," says Sylvia Mathews Burwell, president of the Global Development Program at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. "Most importantly, we must work closely with local communities to develop lasting sanitation solutions that will improve their lives."

A member of the Caltech faculty since 1980, Hoffmann was honored in 2010 by the National Taiwan University as a Distinguished Visiting Chair Professor and by the State of Kerala, India, as an Erudite Distinguished Scholar. Earlier this year, Hoffmann was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. He is the organizing chair of the upcoming International Conference on the Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, which will be held on the Caltech campus at the end of July 2012. 

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Michael Rogers
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Summer Construction of the SCI-Arc/Caltech Solar Decathlon House Hits High Gear

A joint team of students from Caltech and the Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc) are working 60-plus-hour weeks this summer to complete construction of a state-of-the-art, energy-efficient house for the Solar Decathlon, a biennial competition sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that will be held from September 23 to October 2 on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The competition challenges 20 teams from around the world to create the most energy-efficient, affordable, and attractive house they can.

The team is nearing completion of the house's heating and air conditioning, plumbing, and electrical systems; polyurethane insulation was blown into the ceiling joists on July 14, and now team members are busy piecing together 1/2" construction-grade plywood as finish sheeting on the ceiling.

Once finished, the two-story SCI-Arc/Caltech house will sport a soft "skin" of white architectural vinyl—typically used in tent halls—and a central computer, connected to the Internet, to control everything from heating to lighting based on weather forecasts and other data, optimizing energy use.

To follow a blog documenting the SCI-Arc/Caltech team's progress and view pictures of the build, go to http://www.chip2011.com/blog.

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Kathy Svitil
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Wind-turbine Placement Produces Tenfold Power Increase, Caltech Researchers Say

PASADENA, Calif.—The power output of wind farms can be increased by an order of magnitude—at least tenfold—simply by optimizing the placement of turbines on a given plot of land, say researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) who have been conducting a unique field study at an experimental two-acre wind farm in northern Los Angeles County.

A paper describing the findings—the results of field tests conducted by John Dabiri, Caltech professor of aeronautics and bioengineering, and colleagues during the summer of 2010—appears in the July issue of the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy.

Dabiri's experimental farm, known as the Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy (FLOWE), houses 24 10-meter-tall, 1.2-meter-wide vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs)—turbines that have vertical rotors and look like eggbeaters sticking out of the ground. Half a dozen turbines were used in the 2010 field tests.

Despite improvements in the design of wind turbines that have increased their efficiency, wind farms are rather inefficient, Dabiri notes. Modern farms generally employ horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs)—the standard propeller-like monoliths that you might see slowly turning, all in the same direction, in the hills of Tehachapi Pass, north of Los Angeles.

In such farms, the individual turbines have to be spaced far apart—not just far enough that their giant blades don't touch. With this type of design, the wake generated by one turbine can interfere aerodynamically with neighboring turbines, with the result that "much of the wind energy that enters a wind farm is never tapped," says Dabiri. He compares modern farms to "sloppy eaters," wasting not just real estate (and thus lowering the power output of a given plot of land) but much of the energy resources they have available to them.

Designers compensate for the energy loss by making bigger blades and taller towers, to suck up more of the available wind and at heights where gusts are more powerful. "But this brings other challenges," Dabiri says, such as higher costs, more complex engineering problems, a larger environmental impact. Bigger, taller turbines, after all, mean more noise, more danger to birds and bats, and—for those who don't find the spinning spires visually appealing—an even larger eyesore.

The solution, says Dabiri, is to focus instead on the design of the wind farm itself, to maximize its energy-collecting efficiency at heights closer to the ground. While winds blow far less energetically at, say, 30 feet off the ground than at 100 feet, "the global wind power available 30 feet off the ground is greater than the world's electricity usage, several times over," he says. That means that enough energy can be obtained with smaller, cheaper, less environmentally intrusive turbines—as long as they're the right turbines, arranged in the right way.

VAWTs are ideal, Dabiri says, because they can be positioned very close to one another. This lets them capture nearly all of the energy of the blowing wind and even wind energy above the farm. Having every turbine turn in the opposite direction of its neighbors, the researchers found, also increases their efficiency, perhaps because the opposing spins decrease the drag on each turbine, allowing it to spin faster (Dabiri got the idea for using this type of constructive interference from his studies of schooling fish).

In the summer 2010 field tests, Dabiri and his colleagues measured the rotational speed and power generated by each of the six turbines when placed in a number of different configurations. One turbine was kept in a fixed position for every configuration; the others were on portable footings that allowed them to be shifted around.

The tests showed that an arrangement in which all of the turbines in an array were spaced four turbine diameters apart (roughly 5 meters, or approximately 16 feet) completely eliminated the aerodynamic interference between neighboring turbines. By comparison, removing the aerodynamic interference between propeller-style wind turbines would require spacing them about 20 diameters apart, which means a distance of more than one mile between the largest wind turbines now in use.

The six VAWTs generated from 21 to 47 watts of power per square meter of land area; a comparably sized HAWT farm generates just 2 to 3 watts per square meter.

"Dabiri's bioinspired engineering research is challenging the status quo in wind-energy technology," says Ares Rosakis, chair of Caltech's Division of Engineering and Applied Science and the Theodore von Kármán Professor of Aeronautics and professor of mechanical engineering. "This exemplifies how Caltech engineers' innovative approaches are tackling our society's greatest problems."

"We're on the right track, but this is by no means 'mission accomplished,'" Dabiri says. "The next steps are to scale up the field demonstration and to improve upon the off-the-shelf wind-turbine designs used for the pilot study." Still, he says, "I think these results are a compelling call for further research on alternatives to the wind-energy status quo."

This summer, Dabiri and colleagues are studying a larger array of 18 VAWTs to follow up last year's field study. Video and images of the field site can be found at http://dabiri.caltech.edu/research/wind-energy.html.

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Kathy Svitil
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Linde + Robinson Lab Making Headlines for Extraordinary Renovations

The world is taking note of the innovative work being done at Caltech—not just in the labs, but also in the unique renovations of our research spaces. The spring issue of Solutions Journal, a magazine of the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), features an in-depth profile of the Linde + Robinson Laboratory, an astronomy lab built in 1932 that has undergone extensive renovations and will be the nation's first LEED Platinum laboratory.

RMI is a nonprofit organization dedicated to efficient and sustainable use of resources. Several of the institute's staff members participated in the design process of the building, which will house the Ronald and Maxine Linde Center for Global Environmental Science when it re-opens later this month.

"Many newer buildings incorporate many green features and advanced technologies," said Foster Stanback, a green building enthusiast and RMI supporter, in the article. "The real challenge, though, is to retrofit many of the existing structures that can't simply be torn down. The final design plan that emerged … resulted in a building that will truly inspire others about the possibilities for the green retrofitting of older buildings."

To read the full article, click here

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Katie Neith
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Alternative Energy Expert Frances Arnold Profiled in the LA Times

For biochemist and chemical engineer Frances Arnold, the road to success has not been straight and narrow. In fact, she has often bucked the academic tradition of rigorous, time-consuming pre-experiment methodology for a more fast and furious approach to research.

"I said 'OK, if one experiment doesn't work I'm going to do a million experiments, and I don't care if 999,999 don't work. I'm going to find the one that does,'" said Arnold, the Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at Caltech, in a profile published online and in the July 3 print edition of the Los Angeles Times.

Her unconventional approach has paid off. She is co-founder of a company that develops liquid fuel from plants and oversees a lab of 20 students and researchers dedicated to alternative energy.

To learn more about Arnold's career path, including a stint as a cab driver, read the full profile here

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Katie Neith
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