SKIES App Aids Learning in Caltech Classrooms

When you first walk into Bruce Hay's genetics class, it looks like any other 21st-century college lecture hall: the professor, backed by his PowerPoint slides, faces a room full of students with iPads. However, as Hay delivers a lecture about the mechanisms that inhibit gene expression, a rectangular yellow bubble suddenly pops up on the screen below his lecture slide. It's from a student, asking a question about RNA interference. Soon another bubble pops up, this one with a link to a video that explains how microRNAs can affect the color pattern of flower petals. Other bubbles branch off from each other, and hands rise into the air.

Suddenly, you realize you're in the classroom of the future.

Those pop-up bubbles are a key component of a new interactive lecture format made possible by an app developed by two Caltech alums and brought to campus by Caltech's Center for Teaching, Learning, and Outreach (CTLO). The iPad app—produced by Su-Kam Intelligent Education Systems, or SKIES, named after cofounders Julius Su (BS '98, BS '99, PhD '07) and Victor Kam (PhD '08)—is now being used in several classes on campus.

"It's been known for a long time that lecturing—just a professor teaching and the students passively listening—is not an optimal way for students to learn. You always want to have students doing some thinking, some processing, and some recall during the lecture," says Su, who is a CTLO program manager in addition to being one of the cofounders of SKIES.

With this in mind, Su and his colleagues at CTLO have been experimenting with ways to change the traditional Caltech classroom. The SKIES app is based on one such approach—active learning, which gets students participating in a variety of ways, and is supported by a great deal of evidence indicating its effectiveness.

The wiki-like app facilitates this kind of active learning by allowing students to directly interact with lecture materials both inside and outside the classroom. The app compiles and connects notes, links, videos, and other materials—contributed by students, teaching assistants, and the professor—into a branching tree of collective knowledge stemming from an initial seed of slides or other multimedia material.

This concept of students and teachers interacting to create knowledge together is what drew Professor of Biology Bruce Hay to become one of the first users of the SKIES app in 2012.


Students can ask questions during Hay's lecture in the SKIES app. The questions or comments pop up below the lecture slide in real time.

"The big struggle that I have—and that lots of people have—is just getting students to ask questions; getting people to turn the class into more of a discussion rather than just the lecturer speaking," Hay says. "I knew that Julius and Victor were developing this prototype, and I thought, I've been teaching this same course for 15 years now and maybe this would be a good idea, to just try something new that might make it a little more interactive."

In the three years Hay has used the app in his genetics class, he says the app has done just what he'd hoped it would: provided an alternative channel by which students can participate. During class, Hay says students often add cards to his lecture slides as a form of public note-taking; for example, in one lecture, a student added a card to a particular slide, saying, "Professor Hay says this would be an excellent exam question." After class is over, he says, students often post cards with questions about the day's materials; these can then be addressed by Hay or the class's teaching assistants, either directly in class or through another branch of cards in the app.

Hay says that the app lets him monitor what students are contributing—and it allows him to promote and highlight information he considers particularly helpful and relevant to understanding the lecture material. Conversely, the app also allows students to rate how well they understand his lecture slides, as well as the cards added by TAs and other students.

"After class, I take a look at the reviews to see how well the students understood what we talked about in class that day," Hay says. "If I see that a slide is rated green [the app's version of a thumb's up], I can assume that it was pretty straightforward and understandable. But if the students have rated it red, I can add extra material to the slide, like additional text or figures. Then, in the next class, I can go back and say, 'It looks like this part was a little bit difficult. Let's just go back and review it again before we go on to the new stuff.'"

Although these continuous double checks require a bit more effort on the part of the professor and the students, they seem to be paying off: Hay says the average grades in his class went up by almost a full grade point after his first year using the app. The improvement was so noticeable, he says, "it was actually almost frightening. That was probably the biggest indication this was making a difference in terms of learning, instead of just making it fun for me and them."


In the SKIES app, students create dialogue by adding 'cards' that branch off of the professor's lecture slides.

Hay says the added content from students in the SKIES app over the past three years has enabled his course "tree" to grow and improve each term. "I'm not just repeating all the same slides every year. Many of the slides stay the same, but now I add new things, based on what the students found helpful in terms of explanations, quiz questions, and examples. So everyone is involved in making the course better," he notes.

After hearing about some of the app's early successes, other instructors across campus began using SKIES in their courses. This includes Bill Goddard, Charles and Mary Ferkel Professor of Chemistry, Materials Science, and Applied Physics, who has used SKIES to teach lectures and manage group projects in his computational and theoretical chemistry classes; Jeff Mendez, lecturer in chemistry, who has used SKIES to teach the lecture portion of his freshman solar chemistry lab; and Yaser Abu-Mostafa, professor of electrical engineering and computer science, who has used SKIES to promote and manage discussions in the in-class portion of his well-regarded Learning From Data MOOC, which has attracted over 200,000 students within and outside Caltech since its inception.

The app is also being used by many Caltech outreach programs, such as the Summer Research Connection, the Community Science Academy, and Harry Gray's Solar Army, to broaden the impact of university initiatives at the K–12 level; and is being used to teach several classes at Pasadena City College, as well as in several local middle schools and high schools.

SKIES is currently only available on iPad and iPhone, and as the app's popularity has grown, support from the Provost's Innovation in Education Fund and the Bechtel Foundation fund has allowed CTLO to expand the use of SKIES on campus through the purchase of more iPads. In the future, Su hopes that the app's reach will grow even further, both on iPads and eventually by expanding the app to work on other operating systems.

Aside from those few comments on the hardware limitations, Su says the feedback he and his colleagues at the CTLO have received from professors and students who have been using SKIES has been overwhelmingly positive.

"CTLO is continually providing Caltech faculty and TAs with evidence about what helps students learn more effectively. Active and collaborative approaches tend to work well," he says. "This app is just one way to foster more active and collaborative learning, but I think we can already see that it's providing new ways for professors to make classes even more lively and engaging for students at Caltech."

Frontpage Title: 
An App for the Teacher
Writer: 
Exclude from News Hub: 
No
News Type: 
Research News
Tuesday, December 2, 2014
Guggenheim 101 (Lees-Kubota Lecture Hall)

PUSD: Annual Open Enrollment

Wednesday, October 29, 2014
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space)

Meet the Outreach Guys: James & Julius

Remembering Tom Tombrello

1936–2014

Thomas Anthony Tombrello, Caltech's Robert H. Goddard Professor of Physics, passed away on September 23, 2014, at age 78. His studies of nuclear reactions in the 1960s helped show how chemical elements are created.

Tombrello was known on campus as a devoted teacher. "Probably his greatest contribution to Caltech was the identification and mentoring of generations of promising undergraduate physicists," says Steven Koonin (BS '72), Caltech's provost from 1995 to 2004 and now director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress at New York University. "I was among the first of those."

"Tom was incredibly enthusiastic, supportive, and generous with his time with my cohort of undergrads, and he kept this up for the next 40 years," says Joe Polchinski (BS '75), a string theorist at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at UC Santa Barbara.

"Tom counseled me in all aspects of graduate student life—from classes and instructors to the more personal challenges that students face," says France Córdova (PhD '79), the director of the National Science Foundation. "He remained a lifelong friend and counselor. I was buoyed by his email messages, such as the one that followed the announcement of my current position: 'These will be trying times, but you are up to the challenge. If there is any way I can be of help, please let me know.' This was characteristic of his ready support."

Tombrello was born in Austin, Texas, on September 20, 1936. He attended Rice Institute (now Rice University), earning his BA, MA, and PhD in physics in 1958, 1960, and 1961, respectively, before coming to Caltech as a postdoctoral fellow in 1961. He accepted an assistant professorship at Yale in 1963, but returned to Caltech a year later and resumed his research with William Fowler (PhD '36) in the W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory. Fowler and his colleagues had predicted that certain isotopes of lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine would be produced as sun-like stars burned their nuclear fuel. Tombrello synthesized many of these isotopes in Kellogg's megavolt particle accelerator and recorded their spectra, allowing astronomers to measure their stellar abundances and confirm that they appeared in the predicted proportions. He was promoted to assistant professor in 1965, associate professor in 1967, and full professor in 1971.

In 1973, Tombrello took over as principal investigator on the main grant supporting the Kellogg lab, just as money for nuclear physics began to dry up. With some 50 faculty, students, and staff to support, he found other funding by broadening Kellogg's scope of work. He used the particle accelerator to bombard lunar rocks with heavy ions to replicate conditions on the lunar surface and ventured into materials science by conducting radiation-damage studies for the China Lake Naval Weapons Center.

In 1986, Tombrello was put in charge of the physics staffing committee, where he helped hire new physics faculty, according to David Morrisroe Professor of Physics Ed Stone, then the division chair for Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy.

From 1987 to 1989, Tombrello took a leave of absence from Caltech to become vice president and director of research for Schlumberger-Doll, an oil-industry service company.

Tombrello chaired the Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy from 1998 to 2008. Says Koonin, "I was provost for the majority of that time, and we worked well together, although not without productive tensions. He was an energetic, strategic thinker who advanced the division through hires in quantum optics, string theory, nanotechnology, and space-based X-ray and ultraviolet astronomy." But their "greatest collaborative effort," Koonin says, was the Thirty Meter Telescope, which when completed in the early 2020s, will be the world's most advanced optical and near-infrared observatory.

Tombrello oversaw several other projects during his tenure as division chair. He was deeply involved in the design and construction of the Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics. He helped establish what is now the Kavli Nanoscience Institute, a nanotechnology fabrication center open to campus and JPL users, and he played an important role in LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.  

Tombrello co-advised many students with nanotechnologist Axel Scherer, the Bernard A. Neches Professor of Electrical Engineering, Applied Physics, and Physics. "Tom was deeply immersed in the work of my group—nanoscale vacuum tubes, new gene-sequencing systems, sensors for oilfield applications, and lithography at the atomic scale," Scherer says. "He had an intuitive understanding of the physics behind the devices."

A self-proclaimed "kindergarten dropout," Tombrello's true calling was teaching. "One of his most important legacies at Caltech was the creation of Physics 11 [in 1989], a freshman physics course that challenged incoming students to think in nonconventional ways," Koonin says. Applicants to the class completed assignments called "hurdles"—questions that had no right answers and generally had little to do with physics. "He wanted to know whether you had the creativity and courage to attack a strange new problem, work on it until you had a solution you believed in, and allow your solution to be judged on its merits," says Phys 11 veteran Charles Tschirhart, class of 2015.

Tombrello recruited faculty mentors for the students admitted to Physics 11; together, the group planned a summer research project for each student. Says Tschirhart, "The class was about as informal as a class can be; we talked about our work while lounging on a circle of beat-up couches around a whiteboard outside Professor Tombrello's office. The professors would sit among us on the couches while we talked. Conversations often strayed to science policy, history, school politics, and general advice for success in science and in life. It was probably the best thing that anyone could have done for my development as a scientist and as a person."

"He was a very kind person to be around," says senior Adam Jermyn. "He understood the undergraduates in a way I think is uncommon among the faculty. He came to our formal dinners, he talked to us outside of class, and he kept his finger on the pulse of student government. When I applied for permission to overload, he said it would make me miserable. However, he let me try it. I was miserable, and I learned a lesson I think he knew I would not have learned if he'd opposed me directly."

"Tom Tombrello was one of Caltech's most dedicated and effective servants," says former Caltech astrophysicist Marc Kamionkowski. "He could be brash, opinionated, and hot-tempered, but he was a deeply devoted and extraordinarily effective PMA chairman. He was not just dutiful and responsible, he was passionate. He believed with every ounce of his being that Caltech was a special place, that its students and faculty were extraordinary, and that it was his mission to do whatever he could to help them out. He worked tirelessly recruiting outstanding faculty and raising money for them while reserving time each week to work with the undergraduates he adored. With his Texas drawl and his frequent references—with a wink of an eye—to his Sicilian origins, he was one of a kind."

"Tom was an ensemble of talents not easily found in one person—a cross between Socrates, Leonardo Da Vinci and Abraham Lincoln," says high-energy physicist Maria Spiropulu, the last faculty member hired while Tombrello was division chair

"For half a century, Tom Tombrello has represented not just the DNA but the heart and soul of Caltech," says author, radio host, and performer Sandra Tsing Loh (BS '83), a Caltech Distinguished Alumna and a Tombrello protégé. "His legacy is legendary. His loss leaves a giant meteorite crater. If heaven has an Ath, Dr. T. is being welcomed to his much-deserved corner table, although we'll sorely miss him from down here."

Tombrello received two teaching awards from the Associated Students of the California Institute of Technology (ASCIT), and, in 1994, the first Richard P. Feynman Prize for Excellence in Teaching, in part for the creation of Physics 11. He was named the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Physics in 1997, and Robert H. Goddard Professor of Physics in 2012. He was also a fellow of the American Physical Society; a member of Sigma Xi, the international honorary society for science and engineering; and of Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's oldest academic honor society.

Tombrello is survived by his second wife, Stephanie; his first wife, Ann, and their children, Christopher Tombrello, Susan Tombrello, and Karen Burgess; and seven grandchildren. He was predeceased by his stepdaughter, Kerstin.

Memorial donations may be made to the Thomas Tombrello Physics 11 Scholarship Fund by clicking on the link to the fund under his picture, selecting "special gifts," scroll downing and checking "other," and writing "Thomas Tombrello Physics 11 Scholarship" in the "Comments" box. 

Plans for a memorial service are pending.

Writer: 
Douglas Smith
Writer: 
Exclude from News Hub: 
No
News Type: 
In Our Community
Friday, October 17, 2014
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space)

TA Training: fall make-up session

Tuesday, October 7, 2014
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space)

Thirty Meter Telescope Groundbreaking and Blessing

Tuesday, October 7, 2014
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space)

Caltech Peer Tutor Training

Wednesday, September 24, 2014
Annenberg Lecture Hall

A chance to meet Pasadena Unified School District Leadership

Big Data Summer School Is in Session—Virtually

Beginning September 2, Caltech and JPL will be offering an unusual take on the massive open online course (MOOC) model: a two-week-long "virtual summer school" class, providing advanced instruction by experts at Caltech and JPL on the computational skills and methods used in the analysis of complex data sets—that is, of "big data."

Why big data? "Science in the 21st century is becoming increasingly data-driven, and we need new tools for extracting knowledge from massive and complex data sets," says Caltech professor of astronomy George Djorgovski, one of the organizers of the summer school. "Our students and postdocs need to master such skills in order to be effective researchers today."

According to Richard Doyle, program manager of JPL's Information and Data Science Program Office and co-organizer of the course along with Djorgovski and JPL's Dan Crichton, "the challenges of distributed data analytics in the big data era are on the critical path to our future success in conceiving, designing, operating and, most importantly, extracting scientific results from NASA science missions. By joining with Caltech, we combine the intellectual strengths of a leading research institution with JPL's established science, engineering, and technology leadership in accomplishing NASA science missions."

"It is imperative that we begin now to educate our workforce on the nature of the challenges, along with the best available ideas for achieving technical solutions," adds Crichton, director of JPL's Center for Data Science and Technology. "We will be impressing on the students the importance of taking a full life-cycle approach to data-intensive science, from the point of data collection—which may be at Mars, Jupiter or beyond—to grappling with the daunting realities of massive, heterogeneous, highly distributed archived data sets to extract reproducible scientific understanding of Earth, astrophysical, and planetary data. These solutions can apply to many other important fields, such as medicine, health care, and bioinformatics."

"Caltech and JPL are starting a joint research venture in the arena of big data science, and this is our first joint educational offering," says Djorgovski. "It is fittingly both timely and innovative in its approach."

The course has a unique two-tiered format for student enrollment. The first tier consists of a group of 36 official students chosen from a pool of hundreds of applicants. The group includes graduate students, postdocs, and staff scientists from Caltech, JPL, and other institutions in the United States and around the world who already have a strong background in data-driven computing and statistics as well as research experience. Each weekday during the two-week term, these students will watch prerecorded video modules prepared by the course's 11 instructors and then perform hands-on computational exercises to practice what they have learned. Instructors will be available for interactive online sessions.

The second tier is for anyone, anywhere, who wants to take the course, free of charge (but for no credit), through the online learning platform Coursera. The Caltech-JPL Summer School on Big Data Analytics—the first professional summer class offered by Coursera—will be posted at the same time as the regular session, although these students will have no promise of instructor interaction. However, in a twist on the traditional MOOC, which is structured to match an actual classroom learning experience, students will be able to proceed entirely at their own pace. "You can sign up whenever you want. You can go through it at your own pace; take only some of it, or all of it," explains Djorgovski.

At the end of the two-week term, all of the developed content will migrate to Coursera's new On-Demand course platform.

"This is the first Caltech Coursera MOOC using this model, and it is new to Coursera, too," says Leslie Maxfield, director of Academic Media Technologies at Caltech, which supports the Institute's Coursera and edX online courses—now totaling eight in all, with more under development—in collaboration with the Center for Teaching, Learning, and Outreach. "Offering courses as on-demand allows students to fit online education into their busy schedules, and will hopefully increase completion rates," she says. (For a list of Caltech's MOOCs and links to registration for upcoming sessions, go to https://online.caltech.edu/courses).

Finally, in addition to being available indefinitely on Coursera as a stand-alone course, the summer school materials will be used in Djorgovski's spring 2015 Caltech course Methods of Computational Science, which will be offered as a MOOC and used for a "flipped" classroom approach. "A flipped classroom reverses, or 'flips,' when students passively and actively learn," Maxfield explains. "Instead of passively listening to a lecture during class time, students watch online pre-recorded videos and take instant-feedback assessments beforehand. This allows for active, in-class collaborative and creative interactions, such as group problem solving and discussions, directed by their professors."

For more information, visit the course website at http://bigdata.astro.caltech.edu/Home.html.

Frontpage Title: 
Big Data Summer School Is in Session—Virtually
Listing Title: 
Big Data Summer School Is in Session—Virtually
Writer: 
Exclude from News Hub: 
No
Short Title: 
Big Data Summer School Is in Session—Virtually
News Type: 
In Our Community
Wednesday, September 10, 2014
Avery Dining Hall

RESCHEDULED to Sept 24th: A chance to meet Pasadena Unified School District Leadership

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - education