Toward a Sustainable Society

The Dow Sustainability Innovation Student Challenge Award (SISCA) at Caltech honors students and scientists who have made significant contributions to finding sustainable solutions to the world's most pressing social, economic, and environmental problems. The award was established in 2009 by the Dow Chemical Company with the goal of promoting "forward thinking in social and environmental responsibility," according to the SISCA website. This year, graduate students Trevor Del Castillo and Niklas Thompson shared the $10,000 grand prize for their research developing a sustainable catalyst for nitrogen fixation.

Nitrogen is an abundant element crucial to many fertilizers and other chemicals produced on a large scale, but it must first be "fixed" from its inert gaseous state (N2) into usable reactive forms such as ammonia (NH3). The current leading process for synthesizing ammonia, the Haber-Bosch process, is expensive and energy-intense, requiring extreme temperatures and pressures (about 700 degrees Fahrenheit and 200 bars of pressure).

"From a human health perspective, fertilizer production is arguably the most important industrial chemical process that we practice," says Del Castillo. "We currently conduct this chemistry on a tremendous scale in order to feed approximately half of the global population. However, the current technology for fertilizer production is underpinned by high inputs and is hence typically practiced where fossil fuel sources are readily available and inexpensive. In addition to these energy constraints, current modes of agricultural fertilizer use are environmentally harmful and can be impractical in the developing world, where the demand for fertilizer will continue to increase moving forward."

New catalyst technologies have the potential to address this challenge. Del Castillo and Thompson—both graduate students in the laboratory of Jonas Peters, the Bren Professor of Chemistry and director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute—have studied a recently discovered catalyst system to drive nitrogen fixation, resulting in improved performance and furnishing mechanistic insights. Inspired by a family of enzymes that performs biological nitrogen fixation at room temperatures and pressures, the Peters lab has demonstrated that a simple iron compound can catalyze the fixation of nitrogen gas into ammonia at very low temperature and atmospheric pressure.

"This is a field where new technology and innovation has the potential to impact global social equity and sustainable food security while reducing environmental impact," Thompson says. "Our team's work is a small step in this context, but we ultimately hope our fundamental science discoveries will inspire more practical, sustainable technologies. In principle, nitrogen fixing catalysts can be coupled to artificial photosynthesis technologies, potentially opening the door to modular, accessible, and carbon-neutral fertilizer production."

The runners-up for the SISCA prize are Cody Finke, a graduate student, and Justin Jasper, a Resnick Sustainability Institute Prize Postdoctoral Scholar. Both work in the research group of Michael Hoffmann, the James Irvine Professor of Environmental Science, and together they have improved upon a design for a solar-powered wastewater treatment system created for toilets in the developing and developed world. Their process combines ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and electrochemical treatment to produce water suitable for reuse in agriculture and ecosystem services.

"We proposed a hybrid electrochemical-UV system that could be used to provide efficient wastewater treatment in places where water and sewer infrastructure are not available, such as parts of the developing world," Jasper says. "We were particularly excited about our research since it suggested that adding a UV step to the process significantly accelerated treatment and limited formation of disinfection byproducts that can be detrimental to human health.  Therefore, with further work, our system may be able to provide not only wastewater treatment, but also a water source for applications such as irrigation or household cleaning."

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Rosens Recharge Support for Bioengineering

Caltech board chair emeritus and longtime Compaq chairman Benjamin M. (Ben) Rosen (BS '54) and his wife, Donna, have made a bequest commitment to advance scientific exploration at the intersection of biology and engineering. It is anticipated that the couple's latest gift may double the endowment for the Donna and Benjamin M. Rosen Bioengineering Center.

Established in 2008 with $18 million from the Benjamin M. Rosen Family Foundation of New York, the Rosen Center has become a hub for research and educational initiatives that bring together applied physics, chemical engineering, synthetic biology, computer science, and more.

"Just as we had the digital revolution in the last century, we are having a biological sciences revolution in this century," Ben Rosen says. "And Caltech is the place to be."

Read more on the Caltech giving site.

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Rosens Recharge Support for Bioengineering
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Caltech board chair emeritus Ben Rosen (BS ’54) and his wife Donna have made a commitment to scientific exploration at the intersection of biology and engineering.

Rosakis Inducted into Academy of Athens

Ares Rosakis, Caltech's Theodore von Kármán Professor of Aeronautics and Mechanical Engineering in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, has been inducted into the Academy of Athens as a Corresponding Member. The academy was founded in 1926 and is the highest research establishment in Greece, supporting the sciences, humanities, and fine arts.

"My election as a Corresponding Member to the Academy of Athens, in addition to the great scientific honor that it represents, also has a very special meaning for me as a Greek," says Rosakis—shown at right addressing the academy at his induction ceremony. "This is after all the leading scientific and cultural institution of my country of birth, and their recognition carries, for me, exceptional sentimental value."

Rosakis's research is interdisciplinary, covering the fields of aerospace, solid mechanics, mechanics of materials failure, and mechanics of earthquake seismology. He is a leading expert in the area of dynamic failure of solid materials. His address to the academy was titled "Representing Large Earthquakes in the Mechanics Laboratory: Identifying Characteristic Ground Shaking Signatures due to Supershear Ruptures."

Rosakis, a native of Greece, received bachelor's and master's degrees from Oxford University, and his PhD from Brown University. He joined the Caltech faculty in 1982 as the Institute's youngest tenure-track faculty member. He served as chair of the Division of Engineering and Applied Science from 2009 to 2015, and as director of the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories from 2004 to 2009.

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Innovations in the Air

Sure, Google's driverless car is pretty cool. But according to key leaders in the aerospace industry, much of the world's most innovative work is happening not in Silicon Valley but in the laboratories at their companies, where researchers are expanding the boundaries of everything from space travel to deep-sea exploration.

At the "Innovation in Aerospace" forum held at Caltech on Friday, January 22—part of the Idea 2 Innovation series cosponsored by Innovate Pasadena and Caltech—three of the aerospace industry's biggest companies discussed some of their most exciting new ventures. Northrop Grumman's Starshade project could help find life on other planets. Boeing's new unmanned Echo Seeker submarine is capable of diving 20,000 feet below sea level. Lockheed Martin's new imaging technology could radically shrink the size of space telescopes, making it far more efficient to send them deep into space.

Executives from each of the three companies, along with a representative from the start-up incubator Starburst Accelerator, were guided by moderator Andrea Belz (PhD '00), USC Marshall School of Business entrepreneur in residence, in a wide-ranging discussion about aerospace innovation and the quest to invent better models for fostering creative thinking—or, as several panelists put it, "being innovative in how we innovate"—as well as about the challenges of competing for talent with headline-grabbing companies like Google, Facebook, and Uber.

In addition, unlike those companies, innovators in aerospace work in a heavily regulated environment. And in the battle to attract attention and talent, the industry also faces this hurdle: it cannot discuss some of its most innovative work in public because it is often government-funded and top-secret.

That battle to attract and retain new and young talent, the forum's participants said, is critical, because the average age of the aerospace industry's engineers is increasing. Unlike in the days of the Apollo space missions, when much of the industry's workforce was in its 20s, today an estimated half of the industry's engineers are eligible for retirement within the next five years, according to panelist John Tracy, Boeing's chief technology officer.

"You've got to make sure that the next generation is going to come along that has the vision, that has the passion, that has the drive, and has the desire to create the future of aerospace," Tracy said.

The forum was held at Caltech's Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics; in addition to Boeing's Tracy, the panel included Scott Fouse, vice president of the Advance Technology Center at Lockheed Martin; Erik Antonsson, Northrop Grumman's corporate director of technology; and Starburst Accelerator cofounder Vandad Espahbodi.

Much of the discussion centered on ways in which the industry might foster creativity without getting in its way. The panelists acknowledged that large companies like Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and Boeing face this dilemma not only when nurturing talent internally but also when trying to partner with smaller start-up companies working on cutting-edge technologies.

"The trick is, if you touch the start-up at such a young, nascent stage, you will kill it, you will defeat its potential," Starburst's Espahbodi warned, adding that the goal thus becomes to find the right level of noninvasive partnership that will "help them succeed at arm's length."

The panelists disputed the notion that companies like theirs are too monolithic and bureaucratic to allow individual employees to innovate. Northrop Grumman's Antonsson, a former Caltech professor of mechanical engineering, noted that the company spends more than half a billion dollars annually on research and development.

These resources, he said, give the company freedom to experiment. In fact, Antonsson added, it was just this sort of experimentation by one of the company's small internal research groups that produced the Starshade, a technology that will help researchers look at planets dozens of light-years away—including those possibly hospitable to life—by using a space-traveling shade to block the light from stars near those planets.

Mory Gharib, Caltech's Hans W. Liepmann Professor of Aeronautics and Bioinspired Engineering, director of the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, and vice provost, says he thought the forum underscored the vital importance of the industry. He notes that while Uber, for instance, is a revolutionary company, its disappearance would not have a particularly dramatic impact on Americans' lives. "But imagine if Boeing disappeared," says Gharib, who delivered opening remarks at the forum.

Guruswami (Ravi) Ravichandran, Caltech's John E. Goode, Jr., Professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Otis Booth Leadership Chair of the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, says the forum was "another example of the exciting and inspiring developments I have been observing in the Southern California aerospace industry over the past several years."

As Ravichandran, who delivered closing remarks, says, the four panel members not only "have the expertise and the knowledge, but they're also able to inspire people through stories."

Written by Alex Roth

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Novel Calibration Tool Will Help Astronomers Look for Habitable Exoplanets

Promising new calibration tools, called laser frequency combs, could allow astronomers to take a major step in discovering and characterizing earthlike planets around other stars. These devices generate evenly spaced lines of light, much like the teeth on a comb for styling hair or the tick marks on a ruler—hence their nickname of "optical rulers." The tick marks serve as stable reference points when making precision measurements such as those of the small shifts in starlight caused by planets pulling gravitationally on their parent stars.

Yet today's commercially available combs have a significant drawback. Because their tick marks are so finely spaced, the light output of these combs must be filtered to produce useful reference lines. This extra step adds complexity to the system and requires costly additional equipment.

To resolve these kinds of issues, Caltech researchers looked to a kind of comb not previously deployed for astronomy. The novel comb produces easily resolvable lines, without any need for filtering. Furthermore, the Caltech comb is built from off-the-shelf components developed by the telecommunications industry.

"We have demonstrated an alternative approach that is simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive," says paper coauthor Kerry Vahala, the Ted and Ginger Jenkins Professor of Information Science and Technology and Applied Physics as well as the executive officer for Applied Physics and Materials Science in Caltech's Division of Engineering and Applied Science. The kind of frequency comb used by the researchers previously has been studied in the Vahala group in a different application, the generation of high-stability microwaves.

"We believe members of the astronomical community could greatly benefit in their exoplanet hunting and characterization studies with this new laser frequency comb instrument," says Xu Yi, a graduate student in Vahala's lab and the lead author of a paper describing the work published in the January 27, 2016, issue of the journal Nature Communications.

Scientists first began widely using laser frequency combs as precision rulers in the late 1990s in fields like metrology and spectroscopy; for their work, the technology's developers (John L. Hall of JILA and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Theodor Hänsch of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich) were awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2005. In astronomy, the combs are starting to be utilized in the radial velocity, or "wobble" method, the earliest and among the most successful methods for identifying exoplanets.

The "wobble" refers to the periodic changes in a star's motion, accompanied by starlight shifts owing to the Doppler effect, that are induced by the gravitational pull of an exoplanet orbiting around the star. The magnitude of the shift in the starlight's wavelength—on the order of quadrillionths of a meter—together with the period of the wobble can be used to determine an exoplanet's mass and orbital distance from its star. These details are critical for assessing habitability parameters such as surface temperature and the eccentricity of the exoplanet's orbit. With exoplanets that pass directly in front of (or "transit") their host star, allowing their radius to be determined directly, it is even possible to determine the bulk composition—for example, if the planet is built up primarily of gas, ice, or rock. 

In recent years, so-called mode-locked laser combs have proven useful in this task. These lasers generate a periodic stream of ultrashort light pulses to create the comb. With such combs, however, approximately 49 out of every 50 tick marks must be blocked out. This requires temperature- and vibration-insensitive filtering equipment.

The new electro-optical comb that Vahala and his team studied relies on microwave modulation of a continuous laser source, rather than a pulsed laser. It produces comb lines spaced by tens of gigahertz. These lines have from 10 to 100 times wider spacing than the tick marks of pulsed laser combs.

To see how well a prototype would work in the field, the researchers took their comb to Mauna Kea in Hawaii. In September 2014, the instrument was tested at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF); in March 2015, it was tested with the Near Infrared Spectrometer on the W. M. Keck Observatory's Keck II telescope with the assistance of UCLA astronomer Mike Fitzgerald (BS '00) and UCLA graduate student Emily Martin, coauthors on the paper. The researchers found that their simplified comb (the entire electro-optical comb apparatus requires only half of the space available on a standard 19-inch instrumentation rack) provided steady calibration at room temperature for more than five days at IRTF. The comb also operated flawlessly during the second test—despite having been disassembled, stored for six months, and reassembled.

"From a technological maturity point of view, the frequency comb we have developed is already basically ready to go and could be installed at many telescopes," says paper coauthor Scott Diddams of NIST.

The Caltech comb produces spectral lines in the infrared, making it ideal for studying red dwarf stars, the most common stars in the Milky Way. Red dwarf stars are brightest in infrared wavelengths. Because red dwarfs are small, cool, and dim, planets orbiting these types of stars are easier to detect and analyze than those orbiting hotter sun-like stars. NASA's Kepler space observatory has shown that almost all red dwarf stars host planets in the range of one to four times the size of Earth, with up to 25 percent of these planets located in the temperate, or "habitable," zone around their host stars. Thus, many astronomers predict that red dwarfs provide the best chance for the first discovery of a world capable of supporting life.

"Our goal is to make these laser frequency combs simple and sturdy enough that you can slap them onto every telescope, and you don't have to think about them anymore," says paper coauthor Charles Beichman, senior faculty associate in astronomy and the executive director of the NASA ExoPlanet Science Institute at Caltech. "Having these combs routinely available as a modest add-on to current and future instrumentation really will expand our ability to find potentially habitable planets, particularly around very cool red dwarf stars," he says.

The research team is planning to double the frequency of the prototype comb's light output—now centered around 1,550 nanometers, in the infrared—to reach into the visible light range. Doing so would allow the comb also to calibrate spectra from sun-like stars, whose light output is at shorter, visible wavelengths, and thus seek out planets that are Earth's "twins."

Other authors of the paper are Jiang Li, a visitor in applied physics and materials science, graduate students Peter Gao and Michael Bottom, and scientific research assistant Elise Furlan, all from Caltech; Stephanie Leifer, Jagmit Sandhu, Gautam Vasisht, and Pin Chen of JPL; Peter Plavchan (BS '01), formerly at Caltech and now a professor at Missouri State University; G. Ycas of NIST; Jonathan Gagne of the University of Montréal; and Greg Doppmann of the Keck Observatory.

The paper is titled "Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy." The research performed at Caltech and JPL was funded through the President's and Director's Fund Program, and the work at NIST was funded by the National Science Foundation. 

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Novel Tool Aids Exoplanet Hunt
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Researchers have developed a laser frequency comb that expands the ability to find habitable worlds.
Friday, January 29, 2016
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space) – Center for Student Services

Course Ombudsperson Training, Winter 2016

Algorithmic Magic: Behind the Scenes of Modern Computer Science

Computer science permeates many aspects of our lives, from games on a smartphone to global online banking systems. It is crucial for scientists and programmers within the field to have a theoretical and robust understanding of its limits.

On Wednesday, January 20, at 8 p.m. in Beckman Auditorium, Professor of Computer Science Chris Umans will discuss how computer scientists identify and conceptualize computational problems, what sorts of ideas are used to solve them, and how they encapsulate deep questions about the nature of computation itself. Admission is free.

What do you do?

I am a theoretical computer scientist in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, which means I am interested in understanding the possibilities and limitations of computation, in a provable, mathematical sense. Computational complexity attempts to answer the question, what is computationally feasible given limited computational resources? It studies general techniques for trading off resources such as running time, storage space, randomness, and parallelism; it devises methods for transforming whole classes of problems into simple "complete" problems that capture the difficulty of the whole class; and it establishes results about the limits of efficient computation, in a rigorous way. It encompasses some of the deepest and most fundamental open—or unsolved—problems in computer science and mathematics.

Computational complexity also excels at exposing computational problems that we regard as "fundamental" because they lie at the heart of many applications.

I also work on a variety of problems concerning the power of randomness in computation, algorithms for some fundamental algebraic problems, and some questions in quantum computation. Much of my work has an algebraic component to it.

Why is this important?

Theoretical computer science is the "science" behind computer science. It develops the ideas and the mathematics to be able to solve key problems in fast and clever ways and these problems in turn lie at the heart of the technologies that permeate our everyday lives.

Understanding what's possible algorithmically and what's computationally impossible is a fundamental scientific and mathematical question. One major implication is for computer security. We base cryptography and online security on the believed difficulty of problems which seem intractable—problems that can theoretically be solved but not in practice—but we don't know how to prove that these problems don't have an unexpected, fast solution. If we're wrong about their assumed intractability, most of the cryptography currently in use can be broken.

How did you get into this line of work?

As a kid, I enjoyed programming and mathematics. When I took my first course on algorithms I realized I enjoyed figuring out clever ways to solve problems more than coding the solutions themselves. When I learned about the P versus NP problem and the other deep unsolved problems of computational complexity, I was hooked. I feel very fortunate to have the freedom to think deeply about the difficult problems that fascinate me.

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Wednesday, February 3, 2016
Beckman Institute Auditorium – Beckman Institute

"Words Are Obsolete": Explaining and Understanding in the Dynamic Medium

Microscopic Materials: An Interview with Marco Bernardi

All materials, including the screen on which you are currently reading this text, are composed of a tiny universe of particles. These particles are not only the physical ones, like electrons and atomic nuclei, but also excited states (or so-called quasiparticles) that constantly collide and bounce, gaining and losing energy. Marco Bernardi, a newly appointed assistant professor of applied physics and materials science in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, is fascinated by these interactions and how they give rise to the world around us. We spoke with Bernardi about his research on energy in materials and also about his new life in the California sun.

You study materials on a tiny, atomic scale. What does that look like?

At the microscopic scale, all materials are made up of numerous interacting particles, trading energy with one another through various collisions that we call scattering processes. For example, if you excite a material with light, electrons inside will undergo scattering processes to release this excess energy. They can emit light as a photon, emit vibrations as a phonon, or trade energy with other electrons. Surprisingly, these processes occur even in the dark, as all materials maintain an equilibrium with the environment by exchanging energy. Materials hide an intangible universe.

What are you trying to discover about these excited states?

We study the collision processes between these excited states, both to understand the fundamental science and because they are essential for applications. These processes take place on a femtosecond timescale—a femtosecond is a millionth of a billionth of a second—so they are very challenging to study experimentally. One thing we examine is how long it takes for a material to go back to its normal state of equilibrium after it has been excited. For example: if you excite a piece of gallium arsenide by shining light on it, then it will reemit light as it returns back to its equilibrium state. This emission fades out in time. We want to characterize the timescale for this emission decay, which is called the photoluminescence lifetime. Other examples are the scattering of an electron by a crystalline defect in a material, or the time for the spin of an electron to reorient. If we can understand the timescale for the interactions among electrons, phonons, light, defects, spin, and other excited states, we can predict how materials transport electricity and heat, emit and absorb light, and convert energy into different forms. Applications in electronics, optoelectronics, ultrafast science, and renewable energy abound.

In some cases, the questions we ask have already been examined experimentally. Experimentally, it has been determined that an excited electron in silicon loses energy on a femtosecond timescale, and the conductivity of a simple material like gold has been found. But my group aims to look at materials theoretically. We use the atomic structure of materials—the way their atoms are positioned—as the only input, and solve the equations of quantum mechanics in a computer, without any information from experiment. With this approach, we can understand microscopic details out of reach for experiments and can investigate materials that have not yet been fabricated, besides being able to obtain known experimental results. Some problems, like calculating the conductivity of gold, may sound trivial—but nobody has ever computationally calculated the correct conductivity of gold without any information from experiment, and in particular without knowledge of the timescale for electron scattering. There are also a lot of new experiments studying materials at extremely short timescales, some of them requiring multimillion-dollar lasers, but few theories that can explain them. We are working on computational tools that can understand and microscopically interpret both traditional and less traditional experimental scenarios.

We have a fair understanding of most of the different types of scattering processes, and we have ambitious plans to combine all of these computational approaches for different microscopic phenomena into one big code that can calculate everything that's going on in an excited material. Employing massively parallel algorithms and running them on our computer cluster at Caltech or at national supercomputing facilities, this code would open new avenues for our research.

What are some applications of this work?

In any application where current or light is involved, scattering processes between electrons or other excited states control the behavior of the device. This includes solar panels, circuits, transistors, displays, and other electrically conductive materials. Understanding the timescale and the microscopic details of these scattering processes could allow one to create more efficient solar energy conversion devices, light emitters, and circuits, among other applications; or even "just" understand the behavior of matter at the shortest possible timescale.

What excites you most about being at Caltech?

I'm most excited about the emphasis on fundamental science here. People can be really tempted by "flashy" science or experiments on hot topics. But to compute what I'm trying to look at, we have to first build our understanding on simple experiments and materials—boring things—before we are able to tackle materials at the frontier of condensed matter research. Nobody really wants to do basic measurements on pieces of silicon or gold. But fundamentally we don't know how to compute in detail basic excitations in materials. Caltech supports this kind of science. And no matter what you're working on, you can talk to somebody who will give you some unique perspective or insight.

What is your background? How did you get interested in this field?

I grew up in Italy. In high school, I really enjoyed math and physics. I read an article about carbon nanotubes and nanotechnology, and during my undergraduate education in Italy I became very interested in the physics of materials. Carbon nanotubes can be either metallic or semiconducting—a material where you can control how much current can flow through—so you should be able to create all kinds of parts of a device just made out of these tubes. During my PhD work at MIT, my advisor and I predicted that it would be possible to create a solar cell entirely out of carbon nanotubes. We worked together with a colleague who synthesized the device from our design, and now we have the world record for making a solar cell entirely out of carbon. In the two years that I spent at Berkeley, I discovered that I wanted to understand the dynamics of how particles and excited states exchange energy in materials. Now I'm deeply settled and focused on this problem.

What's your favorite thing about being in Southern California?

It's always sunny. I love swimming, and the outdoor swimming pools are great—at MIT, it was generally too cold to go swim outside. So I'm taking full advantage of how warm it is here.

What do you like to do outside of work?

I love traveling and planning trips. I like to pick a country, go online and find all kinds of options for routes and itineraries, and go explore for two weeks. If I weren't doing science I would probably be traveling and learning languages and talking to people. I've been to Japan and Chile recently, and I would really like to see more of Asia but it's getting more complicated—my wife and I are expecting a baby! My maps tell me that I currently have seen 20 percent of the whole world—on land, that is. My ambition is to get to 80 percent one day.

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Friday, January 22, 2016
Cahill, Hameetman Auditorium – Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics

Innovation in Aerospace - An Idea 2 Innovation Event

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