DOE Names Caltech Professor as Director of EFRC Focusing on Light-Material Interactions

Caltech also picked to partner in three additional EFRCs

PASADENA, Calif.--The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science has announced that it will fund the creation of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) over the next five years, including one that will be housed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). That EFRC will be headed by Harry Atwater, the Howard Hughes Professor and professor of applied physics and materials science.

"It is essential and very appropriate for a place like Caltech to serve as an intellectual center for fundamental scientific research in solar energy," says Atwater. "We have programs that support work on photovoltaic devices, but the Energy Frontier Research Center will address fundamental optical science issues relevant to solar energy. It's the kind of center that is best suited to our strengths."

In addition, Caltech researchers will partner with three additional EFRCs at other institutions.

According to Ares Rosakis, chair of Caltech's Division of Engineering and Applied Science, "Radical new approaches to harnessing solar energy are at the heart of many efforts here at Caltech to help contribute to the world's energy infrastructure with innovative, sustainable, core technologies. This new center brings Caltech one step closer to our goal of providing the resources necessary for some of the best minds in the country to lay the groundwork for a new energy economy."

This $777 million program is a major effort to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to build a new 21st-century economy, the White House said in announcing the initiative. The 46 new EFRCs, which will each be funded at $2-5 million per year for a planned initial five-year period, will be established at universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and private firms across the nation.

Supported in part by funds made available under President Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the EFRCs will bring together groups of leading scientists to address fundamental issues in fields ranging from solar energy and electricity storage to materials sciences, biofuels, advanced nuclear systems, and carbon capture and sequestration.

The EFRCs were selected from a pool of some 260 applications received in response to a solicitation issued in 2008 by the DOE's Office of Science. Over 110 institutions from 36 states plus the District of Columbia will be participating in the EFRC research. In all, the EFRCs will involve nearly 700 senior investigators and employ, on a full- or part-time basis, over 1,100 postdoctoral associates, graduate students, undergraduate students, and technical staff. Roughly a third of these researchers will be supported by Recovery Act funding.

Atwater's EFRC, entitled "Light Material Interactions in Energy Conversion," will include collaborations with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Illinois, and some of the work will be done at the Molecular Foundry at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

"The goal of the center is to understand how to sculpt and mold the flow of light through materials," Atwater explains. "By that I mean we will be working to design structures at the nanoscale that steer and change the speed of light to optimally convert sunlight to electricity and chemical fuels."

The three additional EFRCs that will be partnering with Caltech researchers include

  • Rational Design of Innovative Catalytic Technologies for Biomass Derivative Utilization (headed by the University of Delaware), with Mark Davis, the Warren and Katharine Schlinger Professor of Chemical Engineering at Caltech
  • EFRC for Solid State Lighting Science (headed by Sandia National Laboratories), with Harry Atwater
  • Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (headed by the University of Virginia), with William Goddard, the Charles and Mary Ferkel Professor of Chemistry, Materials Science, and Applied Physics at Caltech

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Caltech Electrical Engineer Awarded $6 Million to Develop Self-Healing Circuits

PASADENA, Calif.-- Over the past few decades, the transistors in computer chips have become progressively smaller and faster, allowing upwards of a billion individual transistors to be packed into a single circuit, thus shrinking the size of electronic devices. But these circuits have an intractable design flaw: if just a single transistor fails, the entire circuit also fails.

One novel way around the problem is a so-called "self-healing" circuit--one that can detect, isolate, and fix its own flaws, both by working around the defective transistors by modifying the properties of the rest of the system and introducing additional transistors into the system in a seamless fashion.

Such circuits are "inspired by biological systems that constantly heal themselves in the presence of random and intentional failures," says Ali Hajimiri, a professor of electrical engineering at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

Toward this end, Hajimiri has been awarded a four-year, $6 million grant by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop self-healing circuits for millimeter and microwave frequencies, with applications in imaging, sensing, communications, and radar.

DARPA's Self-HEALing mixed-signal Integrated Circuits, or HEALICs, program is designed to enable the continuation of the Moore's scaling law, which predicts an exponential increase in the number of transistors that can be placed on an integrated circuit (one that performs multiple functions), in the face of inevitable imperfections in those transistors.

"As transistors approach atomic dimensions and run at very high frequencies, even very fine-scale variations within seemingly identical transistors can make a large difference in performance," generating unpredictable behavior, Hajimiri says. "Some circuits may run faster, some slower. Some may actually fail," he says.

Hajimiri's solution is to employ sensors that can detect the conditions within a circuit--and determine, for example, that a particular transistor is not working up to par, or at all--along with actuators that can then modify the system. For example, the actuators could swap functional transistors for failing ones, or add "helper" transistors that would boost the functional capability of a transistor running at sub-optimal speeds. All of these modifications ideally would be made within thousandths to millionths of a second, effectively fixing failing circuits on the fly.

Self-healing circuits are applicable to many integrated circuits, such as the world's first "radar on a chip," a novel radar antenna array system miniaturized onto a single silicon chip, which Hajimiri developed in 2004.

"The way we see it, in a few years seal-healing circuits will allow faster, cheaper, and more robust circuits, making it possible to continue Moore's scaling law by making integrated circuits resemble living organisms in their ability to self-heal and adjust to changes in the environment," Hajimiri says.

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Kathy Svitil
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Thomas McGill, 66

Thomas McGill, professor of applied physics, emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) passed away on March 19. He was 66.

Born on March 20, 1942, in Port Arthur, Texas, McGill was the oldest of five children.

His research had been aimed at the development of new devices based on the fundamentals of solid-state physics, including Schottky barriers and amorphous materials, as well as the applications of heterojunctions and superlattices to a wide class of devices. McGill directed the theses of over 50 PhD students in electrical engineering, physics, and applied physics. He served for nearly 30 years as a consultant to the Defense Science Research Council of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, was a member of the congressionally mandated Semiconductor Technology Council, and served as chief of the Naval Operations Executive Panel.

McGill joined Caltech in 1971 as a member of the Division of Engineering and Applied Science. He was the first faculty member hired in the new discipline of applied physics. He received his BS from Lamar State College of Technology in 1964, and his MS and PhD from Caltech in 1965 and 1969, respectively, under Carver Mead. He was Fletcher Jones Professor of applied physics from 1985 to 1999, and became emeritus in 2008.

McGill authored or coauthored hundreds of publications and was personally known as an engaging lecturer and teacher, a caring mentor, a passionate scientific leader and contributor in many areas, as well as an important contributor and leader in many advisory and working groups for the government.

Married in 1966, he is survived by his wife, Toby Cone McGill, and two daughters, Angela McGill Avogaro and Sarah McGill.

In lieu of flowers, the family suggests a contribution to the Pasadena Humane Society.

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Caltech Scientists Create Titanium-Based Structural Metallic-Glass Composites

The new alloys are lighter and less expensive, but are still tough and ductile enough for use in aerospace applications

PASADENA, Calif.--Scientists from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have created a range of structural metallic-glass composites, based in titanium, that are lighter and less expensive than any the group had previously created, while still maintaining their toughness and ductility--the ability to be deformed without breaking.

A paper describing these breakthrough metallic-glass alloys is now online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Early Edition in advance of an upcoming print publication.

Earlier this year, the same Caltech group had published a paper in the journal Nature, describing new strategies for creating the liquid-metal composites. This research resulted in "alloys with unrivaled strength and toughness," notes Douglas Hofmann, visiting scientist and lead author on the PNAS paper that, along with the Nature paper, describes work he did while a graduate student at Caltech. "They are among the toughest engineering materials that currently exist."

Still, there were shortcomings to the alloys presented in Nature. Because they were created for use in the aerospace industry--among other structural applications--they needed to have very low densities. Ideally, the alloys would have had densities in or around those of crystalline titanium alloys, which fall between 4.5 and 5 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc). The original alloys, made predominantly of zirconium, fell between 5.6 and 6.4 g/cc, putting them "in a no-man's-land of densities for aerospace structures," says Hofmann.

And so Hofmann and his colleagues--including William Johnson, Caltech's Ruben F. and Donna Mettler Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, and a pioneer in the creation of metallic glass--began tweaking the components in their composites, eventually coming up with a group of alloys with a high percentage of titanium, but which maintained the properties of the previously created zirconium alloys.

"Despite being based in titanium," Hofmann notes, "these alloys exhibit the same impressive properties as the zirconium alloys. They are still tough--in other words, they resist cracking--and they are still ductile. In fact, they are even more ductile than the alloys we'd created in the past."

This decrease in density also resulted in a reduction in cost, adds Hofmann, since zirconium is a more expensive metal than is titanium.

The work detailed in the paper, "Development of tough, low-density titanium-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites with tensile ductility," was supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research. Hofmann was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship program.

The paper's coauthors included Johnson; Caltech graduate students Jin-Yoo Suh and Aaron Wiest; Mary-Laura Lind, a visitor in materials science; and Marios Demetriou, a senior research fellow in materials science.

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Lori Oliwenstein
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George W. Housner, 97

George W. Housner, often considered the father of earthquake engineering, passed away on November 10 at the age of 97. Housner died of natural causes in Pasadena, California.

Housner was Braun Professor of Engineering, Emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

Born in Michigan in 1910, Housner received his bachelor's degree from the University of Michigan and his master's and PhD degrees from Caltech.

Housner's interest in earthquake engineering began after the Long Beach quake of 1933. After receiving his PhD, he worked for the Army Corps of Engineers before advising the Air Force during World War II.

Housner spent much of his time during the war in North Africa, where he devised an equation that helped increase the success of pilots navigating barrage balloons--designed to prevent attacks on oil fields--and a new tactic for Air Force bombers to attack bridges, improving their effectiveness.

In 1945 he was honored with the Distinguished Civilian Service Award given by the U.S. War Department.

After the war, Housner joined Caltech as an assistant professor of applied mechanics. He later became the Braun Professor before retiring in 1981. He was named a Caltech Distinguished Alumni in 2006, the Institute's highest honor bestowed on graduates.

Housner's interests included civil projects, such as California's statewide water system. His earthquake-engineering techniques were used to strengthen the dozens of dams and aqueducts running through California--one of the first times modern earthquake engineering was used for this purpose.

"George really has to be considered one of the most original and clearest thinkers ever within the entire engineering profession," said John Hall, professor of civil engineering and dean of students at Caltech.

His expertise in earthquakes led to his chairing a National Academy of Sciences engineering committee evaluating the damage left by the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Soon after, he became a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1972 and to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Housner was the founding member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, and a medal is given by the organization each year in his name. He was also instrumental in the formation of the International Association for Earthquake Engineering and Caltech's Earthquake Research Affiliates.

"George was a man of great intellect, which he used diligently to reduce the impact of earthquakes on our society," said Tom Heaton, professor of engineering seismology at Caltech. "He was one of those special people who changed our world."

In 1981, Housner was given the Harry Fielding Reid Medal from the Seismological Society of America, awarded annually for outstanding contributions in seismology and earthquake engineering.

In a 1988 White House ceremony, President Ronald Reagan awarded the National Medal of Science to Housner. The award citation honored Housner "for his profound and decisive influence on the development of earthquake engineering worldwide. His research contributions have guided the development of earthquake engineering and have had an important impact on other major disciplines."

After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in Northern California, Governor George Deukmejian named Housner chair of the board investigating the collapse of freeways and bridges. He also served as chair of the Caltrans Seismic Advisory Board.

Housner never married and will be cremated and interred at Mountain View Cemetery in Altadena, California.

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$10 Million Gift Will Create New Engineering Center at Caltech

Pasadena, CA--The Gates Frontiers Fund has pledged $10 million to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to support the establishment of the Charles C. Gates Center for Mechanical Engineering within the soon-to-be-renovated Thomas Laboratory on the Caltech campus. This gift marks the launch of a $20 million fund-raising effort for an endowment in mechanical engineering. With this endowment, mechanical engineering at Caltech will step up its efforts in energy innovation, helping the Institute address global energy and climate problems and the country develop energy-market leadership.

The new center will be guided by Kaushik Bhattacharya, professor of mechanics and materials science at Caltech and executive officer for mechanical engineering, and will support research and academic priorities including the Energy Engineering Initiative in mechanical engineering, a program to develop new approaches and technologies to address the challenges of energy demand and supply.

The gift is being made in honor of Charles C. Gates, a Caltech trustee for 25 years and longtime champion of the Institute. Says Diane G. Wallach, Charles Gates's daughter and a co-trustee of the Gates Frontiers Fund, "My father felt that Caltech did things differently than other prominent universities; he liked the concentration of energy going into science and technology, and loved Caltech's focus on the hard sciences. He was an engineer himself, and believed that mechanical engineering should cut across all the disciplines, that we have to get people from all these areas into the same room, get them talking to each other to solve problems. This gift will help make that happen."

According to Caltech president Jean-Lou Chameau, the Gates Frontiers Fund's decision to underwrite the Gates Center "stands as a turning point in the history of mechanical engineering at Caltech and lends great strength to our efforts in building a program that will not only educate the next generation of pathbreakers in the field of energy and sustainability, but also provide critical energy solutions."

"This endowment will ensure that the mechanical engineering program continues to attract, retain, and educate the best engineers and scientists in the world," says Bhattacharya. "The societal impact of the Energy Engineering Initiative has the potential to be far-reaching, and the proposed Charles C. Gates Center for Mechanical Engineering will play an integral role in the initiative's success, while also honoring the memory and resolve of Charles Gates."

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About Caltech:

The California Institute of Technology is a small, independent university that offers instruction in science and engineering for a student body of 900 undergraduate and 1,200 graduate students. With an outstanding faculty, Caltech is one of the world's major research centers, focusing on those areas in which it has the faculty and facilities to excel.

Since 1923, Caltech faculty and alumni have garnered 32 Nobel Prizes and five Crafoord Prizes. Forty-nine alumni and faculty have been awarded the National Medal of Science, and 10 faculty and alumni have received the National Medal of Technology.

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MacArthur Foundation Names Alexei Kitaev Latest Caltech "Genius"

Notes that his work brings us "closer to the realization of the full potential of quantum computing"

PASADENA, Calif.-- Alexei Kitaev, a California Institute of Technology (Caltech) faculty member, has been named a MacArthur Fellow, winning one of the five-year, $500,000 grants that are awarded annually to creative, original individuals and that are often referred to as the "genius" awards. 

With a joint appointment at Caltech as professor of theoretical physics and computer science in the Divisions of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy and of Engineering and Applied Science, Kitaev explores the mysterious behavior of quantum systems and their implications for developing practical applications, such as quantum computers. He has made important theoretical contributions to a wide array of topics within condensed-matter physics, including quasicrystals and quantum chaos.

More recently, Kitaev has devoted considerable attention to the use of quantum physics for performing computation. Upon learning of the first algorithm for factoring numbers (an important aspect of cryptography) with quantum computers, he independently developed an alternative approach using "phase estimation," a solution that generalizes to an even wider range of calculations.

Though his work is focused mainly at the conceptual level, he also participates in "hands-on" efforts to develop working quantum computers.

Kitaev says he was "very surprised" when he received the call from Daniel Socolow, director of the MacArthur Fellows Program, telling him of his selection for the award. "I didn't know what the award was at first," admits Kitaev, who was born and educated in Russia. "But then I looked up the names of people who have previously received a MacArthur award, and saw that they are very good scientists. I am excited and honored to be in the same group with them."

"We are thrilled that Alexei has received this well-deserved honor," says Andrew Lange, the Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics and chair of the Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy at Caltech. "He is a stunningly original thinker who has made profound theoretical contributions to both quantum computing and condensed-matter physics. Alexei forged a deep connection between these two disparate subjects by proposing the 'topological quantum computer,' an idea now being aggressively pursued in laboratories around the world. Fostering such interdisciplinary insights is a central part of Caltech's mission, and we are proud to have Alexei on our faculty."

Kitaev received a diploma from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1986, and his PhD from Russia's Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in 1989. He served as a researcher at Microsoft Research from 1999 until 2001. He first came to Caltech as a visiting associate and a lecturer in 1998, and he was named professor of theoretical physics and computer science in 2002.

The MacArthur awards traditionally come out of the blue--most awardees have no idea that they are even being considered--and with no strings attached. MacArthur Fellows are not required to account for the ways in which they spend the money. Still, Kitaev says he feels it is important for him to use the award to do work that is "innovative and creative," and expects to take some time to figure out just what will fit the bill.

"The MacArthur Fellows Program celebrates extraordinarily creative individuals who inspire new heights in human achievement," says MacArthur president Jonathan Fanton. "With their boldness, courage, and uncommon energy, this new group of Fellows--men and women of all ages in diverse fields--exemplifies the boundless nature of the human mind and spirit."

Kitaev is one of 25 newly named 2008 Fellows--a list which includes UCLA astronomer Andrea Ghez, who received her MS in 1989 and her PhD in 1993 from Caltech, and Harvard Medical School neurobiologist Rachel Wilson, who was a postdoctoral fellow at Caltech from 2001 to 2004. Kitaev also joins the ranks of previous Caltech MacArthur Fellows, including its two 2007 awardees, Michael Elowitz and Paul W. Rothemund.

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Caltech Invention Earns R&D 100 Award

PASADENA, Calif.-Research done at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has been honored with R&D Magazine's R&D 100 Award. The award recognizes significant new technologies from the past year. 

Making the list this year was work conceived by Morteza Gharib (PhD '83), the Hans W. Liepmann Professor of Aeronautics and professor of bioengineering at Caltech, and by his team, including Emilio Graff (PhD '07) and postdoctoral fellow Francisco Pereira. The team designed a three-dimensional camera with a vast array of possibilities, ranging from 3-D movement tracking for rehabilitation to underwater surveillance. Their invention, the Volumetric 3-Component Velocimetry Video (V3V) System, has been licensed and marketed by TSI Inc., a Minnesota-based company that designs and manufactures precision instruments used to measure flow, particulates, and other key parameters.

"This award is a recognition that basic research can have a by-product for society," says Gharib. "My dream is for this device to become routine in robotic surgery."

The path to developing his three-dimensional camera began in 1992, when he and graduate student Christian Willert came up with the idea of "defocusing." As simple as it sounds, it's the process of making a "perfect image imperfect, and then extracting information out of that so-called imperfection," says Gharib.

The work was originally developed as underwater flow surveillance technology for the U.S. Navy. The camera includes a lens with three apertures--as opposed to one used in typical cameras. Rather than viewing a two-dimensional image, the three apertures give the image depth.

Gharib quickly recognized the camera's potential use in fields such as sports, industry, and medicine. For example, if physicians wanted to analyze the velocity of a person's gait, the camera might be used to record movements versus recording measurements by attaching multiple wires to the legs. The V3V camera converts those movements into numbers, information a computer program then analyzes.

Gharib also sees a potential for using his camera on the end of a surgical catheter, allowing a surgeon to better observe a patient's arteries during minimally invasive surgery. Using 3-D imagery from the camera, the surgeon would be able to make more precise incisions from within the artery itself.

The V3V System obtained its first of a series of patents in 2000. In January of this year, it was officially put on the worldwide market by TSI. The company serves industries, governments, research institutions, and universities.

Since 1963, R&D Magazine has showcased annually the most significant new technologies commercialized during the previous year. Winning an R&D 100 Award is recognition that the product is one of the most innovative ideas of the year. Previously, the R&D 100 Awards have recognized products such as the ATM in 1973, the liquid crystal display in 1980, the Nicoderm antismoking patch in 1992, and digital television in 1998. To get a full list of the 2008 R&D 100 winners, go to http://www.rdmag.com/awards.html.

 

 

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Caltech Scientists Create DNA Tubes with Programmable Sizes for Nanoscale Manufacturing

PASADENA, Calif.--Scientists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have developed a simple process for mass producing molecular tubes of identical--and precisely programmable--circumferences. The technological feat may allow the use of the molecular tubes in a number of nanotechnology applications. 

The molecular tubes are composed of wound-up strands of DNA. DNA has been considered an ideal construction material for self-assembling molecular structures and devices because two complementary DNA strands can automatically recognize and bind with each other. DNA has been used to form rigid building blocks, known as tiles, and these tiles can further assemble into extended lattice structures, including tubes. However, it has been difficult to control the diameters of such tubes.

Peng Yin, a senior postdoctoral scholar in bioengineering and computer science at Caltech's Center for Biological Circuit Design, along with his colleagues has designed a series of flexible, single-stranded DNA molecules, called single-stranded DNA tiles. Each single-stranded tile is exactly 42 bases long and contains four modular binding sites. By pairing up the complementary binding sites, these single-stranded tiles bind with each other in a particular orientation like Lego pieces snapped together, forming a tube composed of parallel DNA helices.

The circumference of the resulting tube is determined by the number of different 42-base pieces used in its construction. For example, four pieces create a tube with a circumference of 12 billionths of a meter (or 12 nanometers); five pieces, a 15-nanometer-circumference tube; and six pieces, an 18-nanometer tube.

"We are not the first to make DNA tubes with controlled circumferences. However, compared with previous approaches, our method is distinctively simple and modular," says Yin. The simplicity and modularity of their approach permits the description of the tube design using a simple graphical abstraction system developed earlier this year in the laboratory of Niles Pierce, associate professor_of applied and computational mathematics and bioengineering at Caltech.

Just as a variety of wood sizes are used in construction projects--two by four inches for framing walls, two by eight inches for roof rafters, or four by four inches for fence posts--having nanotubes of various, precisely controlled sizes provides their user with more options. In addition, nanotubes of different sizes have varying mechanical properties; for example, tubes with a smaller diameter are more flexible and tubes with a larger diameter are more rigid. The nanotubes might eventually serve as templates for manufacturing nanowires with controlled diameters; the diameters of electron-conducting nanowires would help determine the electronic properties of the devices they are used to construct.

"The simplicity of the single-stranded tile approach promises to enable us to design ever more complex self-assembling molecular systems. The work is simultaneously elegant and useful," says Erik Winfree, associate professor of computer science, computation and neural systems, and bioengineering at Caltech. Winfree's laboratory was the primary host of Yin's research at Caltech.

The paper, "Programming DNA Tube Circumferences," was published August 8 in the journal Science. Yin's coauthors are applied physics graduate student Rizal Hariadi and computer science postdoctoral scholar Sung Ha Park from Erik Winfree's group; bioengineering graduate student Harry Choi from Niles Pierce's group; and computer science graduate student Sudheer Sahu at Duke University; Thomas LaBean, associate research professor of computer science and chemistry at Duke University; and John Reif, professor of computer science at Duke University.

The work was funded by the Center for Biological Circuit Design at Caltech and the National Science Foundation. 

 

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Caltech Researcher Recognized as One of the World's Top Young Innovators

Honor comes in Technology Review's prestigious TR35 listing

Pasadena, Calif., August 20, 2008--The California Institute of Technology today announced that Julia Greer, assistant professor of materials science in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, has been recognized by Technology Review magazine as one of the world's top innovators under the age of 35 for her work with materials on a nanoscale level. Selected from more than 300 nominees by a panel of expert judges and the editorial staff of Technology Review, the TR35 is an elite group of accomplished young innovators who exemplify the spirit of innovation.

Greer came to Caltech from Stanford after receiving her undergraduate degree from MIT. Her work looks at the behavior of materials on a nanoscale level. As materials shrink in size, her research group looks at various phenomena associated with the shrinking process, including structural and mechanical integrity.

"Caltech is really an exciting place to be," says Greer. "It provides a rich environment for collaboration and discussion. It's been a great experience building my research group to study this phenomena."

The award also recognizes Greer's achievement in designing and manufacturing an instrument--dubbed the "SEMentor"--which allows her to obtain mechanical properties of materials with nanoscale dimensions.

"The TR35 honors young innovators for accomplishments that are poised to have a dramatic impact on the world as we know it," says Jason Pontin, editor in chief and publisher of Technology Review magazine. "We celebrate their success and look forward to their continued advancement of technology in their respective fields."

Greer and the other TR35 winners for 2008 will be featured in the September issue of Technology Review magazine and honored at the EmTech08 conference to be held at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 23 to25.

"I'm especially excited about this award because MIT is my alma mater," says Greer. "I've been fortunate to go through college surrounded by innovative people and expected that in the real world I would come across it again! It's amazing to be part of a group of people moving society towards progress."

Additional information about past and present TR35 winners and judges is available at www.technologyreview.com/tr35/. For more information about the EmTech08 conference, visit www.technologyreview.com/emtech/08/index.aspx.

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