Cancer Treatment in a Painless Patch

Chemotherapy is a life-saving medical intervention for millions of cancer patients, but the treatment is often not a pleasant experience. To kill off cancer cells, chemotherapy drugs must directly enter the patient's bloodstream and so they are administered intravenously. But are large, often painful needles the only reliable way to deliver the drugs?

Caltech senior Teo Wilkening, a mechanical engineering major in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, spent this past summer testing the preliminary design of an alternative—and possibly much less painful—method: drug delivery through a patch.

Caltech's Mory Gharib, the Hans W. Liepmann Professor of Aeronautics and Bioinspired Engineering, first came up with the idea for the patch several years ago. Gharib's interest in painless drug delivery patches was renewed after a discussion with M. Houman Fekrazad, a cancer specialist at the City of Hope in Duarte, California. When Wilkening joined the Gharib lab in June as part of the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) program, Gharib encouraged him to come up with a way to design and test the feasibility of such a patch.

"When we started thinking about designing a chemotherapy patch, we split the project into two main parts," Wilkening says. One part is to create a compartment that holds the fluid or medicine; the second is the design of a needle-like device to physically deliver the medicine into the patient's bloodstream. "Over the summer, I started working on the needles," he says.

Any chemotherapy delivery device must provide a way for the drug to get through the skin and into the blood. To avoid the pain caused by the large needle traditionally used for such an intravenous injection, Gharib envisioned a patch containing hundreds of micrometer-scale needles, too small in diameter to be sensed by the nerves in the skin. Wilkening wanted to test how efficiently the tiny needles could actually deliver a drug.

Skin is made of three layers—the epidermal, dermal, and subdermal layers. For a drug to enter the bloodstream, it must be delivered into the bottom, or subdermal, layer. From there, Wilkening explains, "it can be distributed throughout the body, instead of pooling up and killing the cells around the injection site. We wanted to develop a way for the micrometer-scale needles to routinely deliver medicine to this bottom layer."

Wilkening hoped to exploit the fact that each of the three skin layers has a different resistance level. The outer skin layer, the epidermis, is the stiffest of the three; the middle layer, the dermis, is of intermediate stiffness; and the subdermal layer is the easiest to penetrate.

To test how this resistance would affect the flow of a fluid—like a solution carrying a cancer-killing drug—Wilkening created a large-scale model of the microneedles using a pair of microliter glass pipettes. In the model, liquid flows from a common reservoir and into both pipettes at the same rate. To simulate the resistance to flow that would be present in needles in a patch, Wilkening added viscous materials, such as gelatin, to the end of both of the pipettes and then inserted them into separate gels representing the different layers of skin. By varying the stiffness of the gels, he was able to determine the likely behavior of the flow coming from the patch under the condition that one needle penetrates deep enough to the subdermal layer and the other does not. "The liquid flow penetrated through one needle or the other depending on the difference in the stiffness of the skin-like gels, generally through the less stiff one," he says.

Although he spent the majority of his summer perfecting the setup of this experiment and only a little over a week in the actual testing phase, Wilkening's preliminary results suggest that the concept behind the patch is sound. That is, once the fluid meets resistance in one needle, it will follow the path of less resistance and will flow into the other needle. That means that in a patch composed of many hundreds of needles, a drug should be deliverable directly into the subdermal layer and able to reach the patient's bloodstream precisely because it does not as easily flow into the two layers above the subdermis.

While his SURF project is now technically over, Wilkening—who is also a teaching assistant in the mechanical engineering shop and the captain of the Caltech soccer team—says he will be continuing his work with Gharib during the school year.

"I hope to see this project through a little bit more," he says. "In my two previous SURF projects I worked on existing systems. This year was very different because nobody has done this before. It is kind of cool having a chance to own my own project and to use my own inspiration and ideas to really build it up from the bottom."

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Cancer Treatment in a Painless Patch
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SURF student Teo Wilkening spent his summer developing a chemotherapy patch that could one day take pain out of the equation.

Elachi to Retire as JPL Director

Charles Elachi (MS '69, PhD '71) has announced his intention to retire as director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on June 30, 2016, and move to campus as professor emeritus. A national search is underway to identify his successor.

"A frequently consulted national and international expert on space science, Charles is known for his broad expertise, boundless energy, conceptual acuity, and deep devotion to JPL, campus, and NASA," said Caltech president Thomas F. Rosenbaum in a statement to the Caltech community. "Over the course of his 45-year career at JPL, Charles has tirelessly pursued new opportunities, enhanced the Laboratory, and demonstrated expert and nimble leadership. Under Charles' leadership over the last 15 years, JPL has become a prized performer in the NASA system and is widely regarded as a model for conceiving and implementing robotic space science missions."

With Elachi at JPL's helm, an array of missions has provided new understanding of our planet, our moon, our sun, our solar system, and the larger universe. The GRAIL mission mapped the moon's gravity; the Genesis space probe returned to Earth samples of the solar wind; Deep Impact intentionally collided with a comet; Dawn pioneered the use of ion propulsion to visit the asteroids Ceres and Vesta; and Voyager became the first human-made object to reach interstellar space. A suite of missions to Mars, from orbiters to the rovers Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity, has provided exquisite detail of the red planet; Cassini continues its exploration of Saturn and its moons; and the Juno spacecraft, en route to a July 2016 rendezvous, promises to provide new insights about Jupiter. Missions such as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the Spitzer Space Telescope, Kepler, WISE, and NuSTAR have revolutionized our understanding of our place in the universe.

Future JPL missions developed under Elachi's guidance include Mars 2020, Europa Clipper, the Asteroid Redirect Mission, Jason 3, Aquarius, OCO-2, SWOT, and NISAR.

Elachi joined JPL in 1970 as a student intern and was appointed director and Caltech vice president in 2001. During his more than four decades at JPL, he led a team that pioneered the use of space-based radar imaging of the Earth and the planets, served as principal investigator on a number of NASA-sponsored studies and flight projects, authored more than 230 publications in the fields of active microwave remote sensing and electromagnetic theory, received several patents, and became the director for space and earth science missions and instruments. At Caltech, he taught a course on the physics of remote sensing for nearly 20 years

Born in Lebanon, Elachi received his B.Sc. ('68) in physics from University of Grenoble, France and the Dipl. Ing. ('68) in engineering from the Polytechnic Institute, Grenoble. In addition to his MS and PhD degrees in electrical science from Caltech, he also holds an MBA from the University of Southern California and a master's degree in geology from UCLA.

Elachi was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1989 and is the recipient of numerous other awards including an honorary doctorate from the American University of Beirut (2013), the National Academy of Engineering Arthur M. Bueche Award (2011), the Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur from the French Republic (2011), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Carl Sagan Award (2011), the Royal Society of London Massey Award (2006), the Lebanon Order of Cedars (2006 and 2012), the International von Kármán Wings Award (2007), the American Astronautical Society Space Flight Award (2005), the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (2004, 2002, 1994), and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1999).

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Elachi to Retire as JPL Director
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He will move to campus as professor emeritus. A national search is underway to identify his successor.

Building a Microscope to Search for Signs of Life on Other Worlds

In March of this year, a team of bioengineers from Caltech, JPL, and the University of Washington spent a week in Greenland, using snowmobiles to haul their scientific equipment, waiting out windstorms, and spending hours working on the ice. Now the same researchers are planning a trip to California's Mojave Desert, where they will study Searles Lake, a dry, extremely salty basin that is naturally full of harsh chemicals like arsenic and boron. The researchers are testing a holographic microscope that they have designed and built for the purpose of observing microbes that thrive in such extreme environments. The ultimate goal? To send the microscope on a spacecraft to search for biosignatures—signs of life—on other worlds such as Mars or Saturn's icy moon Enceladus.

"Our big overarching hypothesis is that motility is a good biosignature," explains Jay Nadeau, a scientific researcher at Caltech and one of the investigators on the holographic microscope project, dubbed SHAMU (Submersible Holographic Astrobiology Microscope with Ultraresolution). "We suspect that if we send back videos of bacteria swimming, that is going to be a better proof of life than pretty much anything else."

Think, she says, of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the father of microbiology, who used simple microscopes in the 17th and 18th centuries to observe protozoa and bacteria. "He immediately recognized that they were living things based on the way they moved," Nadeau says. Indeed, when Leeuwenhoek wrote about observing samples of the plaque between his teeth, he described seeing "many very little animalcules, very prettily a-moving." And Nadeau adds, "No one doubted Leeuwenhoek once they saw them moving for themselves."

In order to capture images of microbes "a-moving" on another world, Nadeau and her colleagues, including Mory Gharib, the Hans W. Liepmann Professor of Aeronautics and Bioinspired Engineering and a vice provost at Caltech, had the idea to use digital holography rather than conventional microscopy.

Holography is a method for recording holistic information about the light bouncing off a sample so that a 3-D image can be reconstructed at some later time. Compared to microscopy, which often involves multiple lenses focusing over a shallow sample (on a slide, for example), holography offers the advantages of focusing over a relatively large volume and of capturing high-resolution images, without the trouble of moving parts that could break in extreme environments or during a launch or landing, if the instrument were sent into space.

Standard photography records only the intensity of the light (related to its amplitude) that reaches a camera lens after scattering off an object. But as a wave, light has both an amplitude and a phase, a separate property that can be used to tell how far the light travels once it is scattered. Holography is a technique that captures both—something that makes it possible to re-create a three-dimensional image of a sample.

To understand the technique, first imagine dropping a pebble in a pond and watching ripples emanate from that spot. Now imagine dropping a second pebble in a new spot, producing a second set of ripples. If the ripples interact with an object on the surface, such as a rock, the ripples are diffracted or scattered by the object, changing the pattern of the waves—an effect that can be detected. Holography is akin to dropping two pebbles in a pond simultaneously, with the pebbles being two laser beams—one a reference beam that shines unaffected by the sample, and an object beam that runs into the sample and gets diffracted or scattered. A detector measures the combination, or superposition, of the ripples from the two beams, which is known as the interference pattern. By knowing how the waves propagate and by analyzing the interference pattern, a computer can reconstruct what the object beam encountered as it traveled

"We can take an interference pattern and use that to reconstruct all of the images in different planes in a volume," explains Chris Lindensmith, a systems engineer at JPL and an investigator on the project. "So we can just go and reconstruct whatever plane we are interested in after the fact and look and see if there's anything in there."

That means that a single image captures all the microbes in a sample—whether there is one bacterium or a thousand. And by taking a series of such images over time, the researchers can reconstruct the path that each bacterium took as it swam in the sample.

That would be virtually impossible with conventional microscopy, says Lindensmith. With microscopy, you need to focus in real time, meaning that someone would have to turn a dial to move the sample closer or farther from the microscope's lenses in order to keep a particular microbe in focus. During that time, they would miss out on the movements of any other microbes in the sample because the focus is so small.

All of the advantages that the holographic microscope offers over microscopy make it appealing for studies elsewhere in the solar system. And there are a number of worlds that scientists are eager to study in close-up detail to search for signs of life. In 2008, using data from the Phoenix Mars lander, scientists determined that there is water ice just below the surface in the northern plains of the Red Planet, making the locale a candidate for follow-up sampling studies. In addition, both the jovian moon Europa and the saturnian moon Enceladus are thought to harbor liquid oceans beneath their icy surfaces. Therefore, the SHAMU group says, a compact, robust, microscope like the one the Caltech team is developing could be a highly desirable component of an instrument suite on a lander to any one of those locations.

Nadeau says the group's prototype performed well during the team's field-testing trip to Greenland. At each testing site, the researchers drilled a hole into the sea ice, submerged the microscope to a depth where some of the salty liquid water trapped inside the ice, called brine, was able to seep into the device's sample area, and collected holographic images. "We know that things live in the water and we know what they do and how they swim," says Nadeau. "But believe it or not, nobody knew what kinds of microorganisms live in sea-ice brine or if they can swim."

That is because typical techniques for counting, labeling, and observing microbes rely on fragile instrumentation and often require large amounts of power, making them unusable in extreme environments like the Arctic. As a result, "nobody had ever looked at sea-ice organisms immediately after collection like we did," says Stephanie Rider, a staff scientist at Caltech who went on the Greenland trip as part of the project. Previously, other teams have collected samples and taken them back to a lab where the samples have been stored in a freezer, sometimes for weeks at a time. "Who knows how much the samples have been warmed up and cooled down by the time someone studies them?" Rider says. "The samples could be totally different at that point."


When samples are returned to the laboratory, fed rich medium, and warmed to +4 degrees, swimming speeds are greatly increased.
Credit: Jay Nadeau/Caltech

During the Greenland trip, the SHAMU group successfully collected images that have been used to construct videos of bacteria and algae that live in the sea-ice brine. They also brought samples back to a lab in Nuuk, Greenland, warmed them overnight, and fed them bacterial growth medium—duplicating the standard conditions under which microorganisms from sea ice have been studied in the past. The researchers found that under those conditions, "everything starts zipping around like crazy," says Nadeau, indicating that in order to be accurate, observations do need to be made in place on the ice rather than back in a lab.

The team is particularly excited about what the successful measurements from Greenland could mean in the context of Mars. "We know from this that we can tell that things are alive when you take them straight out of ice," says Nadeau. "If we can see life in there on Earth, then it's possible there might be life in pockets of ice on Mars as well. Perhaps you don't have to have a big liquid ocean to find living organisms; there's a possibility that things can live just in pockets of ice."

The three-year SHAMU project began in January 2014 with funding from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. In the coming months, the engineers hope to improve the microscope's sample chamber and to scale down the entire device. They believe they will have a launch-ready instrument by the end of the funding period.

As a first test in space, they would like to send the instrument to the International Space Station not only to see how it behaves in space but also to observe microbial samples under zero-gravity conditions. Beyond that, they hope to include SHAMU on a Mars lander as part of a NASA Discovery mission aimed at searching for biosignatures in the frozen northern plains of Mars. The Caltech team is partnering with Honeybee Robotics, a company that has built drills and sampling systems for numerous NASA missions (including the Phoenix Mars lander), to integrate the holographic microscope on a drill that would bore down about three feet into the martian ground ice.

In addition to Nadeau, Gharib, and Lindensmith, Jody Deming of the University of Washington's School of Oceanography is also an investigator on the SHAMU project.

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Kimm Fesenmaier
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A Microscope to Search for Life on Other Worlds
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If microbial life exists elsewhere in the solar system, wouldn't we like to actually see it on the move?

Peters Named New Director of Resnick Sustainability Institute

Jonas C. Peters, the Bren Professor of Chemistry, has been appointed director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute. Launched in 2009 with an investment from philanthropists Stewart and Lynda Resnick and located in the Jorgenson Laboratory on the Caltech campus, the Resnick Institute concentrates on transformational breakthroughs that will contribute to the planet's sustainability over the long term.

The Resnick Sustainability Institute, which involves both the Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Engineering and Applied Science divisions, serves as a prime example of the multidisciplinary approach prized by Caltech.

"Some of the most important challenges in sustainability are also among the most complex," says Peters, who has been a member of the Caltech faculty since 1999. "We are committed to working on problems that are uniquely suited to the Caltech environment. This means starting with fundamentals and leveraging the cross-catalysis of ideas and creativity of this campus to come up with ways to have substantial impact."

Because the world's natural resources are dwindling, Peters wants to continue focusing the Resnick Institute's efforts on efficient energy generation, storage, and use. Some current projects include development of advanced photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical solar fuels and cellulosic biofuels; energy conversion work on batteries and fuel cells; and efficiency in industrial catalysis and advanced research on electrical grid control and distribution.

In addition, the Resnick Institute is exploring new opportunities in the area of water sustainability. In September, the institute hosted a workshop entitled "Water Resilience and Sustainability: Can We Make LA Water Self-Sufficient?" The workshop examined the long-term potential for sustainable water use in urban environments, using the Los Angeles area as a case study.

"The Resnick Sustainability Institute is continuing to build one of the great centers for sustainability research," says Peters. "We are doing this by supporting the most talented young scientists and engineers committed to tackling the fascinating, critical, and yet very difficult challenges of this field."

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New Resnick Director Appointed
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Jonas C. Peters has been appointed director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute.
Friday, October 30, 2015
Beckman Institute Auditorium – Beckman Institute

Teaching Statement Workshop

Toward a Smarter Grid

Steven Low, professor of computer science and electrical engineering at Caltech, says we are on the cusp of a historic transformation—a restructuring of the energy system similar to the reimagining and revamping that the communication and computer networks experienced over the last two decades, making them layered, with distributed and interconnected intelligence everywhere.

The power network of the future—aka the smart grid—will have to be much more dynamic and responsive than the current electric grid, handling tremendous loads while incorporating intermittent energy production from renewable resources such as wind and solar, all while ensuring that when you or I flip a switch at home or work, the power still comes on without fail.

The smart grid will also be much more distributed than the current network, which controls a relatively small number of generators to provide power to millions of passive endpoints—the computers, machines, buildings, and more that simply consume energy. In the future, thanks to inexpensive sensors and computers, many of those endpoints will become active and intelligent loads like smart devices, or distributed generators such as solar panels and wind turbines. These endpoints will be able to generate, sense, communicate, compute, and respond.

Given these trends, Low says, it is only reasonable to conclude that in the coming decades, the electrical system is likely to become "the largest and most complex cyberphysical system ever seen." And that presents both a risk and an opportunity. On the one hand, if the larger, more active system is not controlled correctly, blackouts could be much more frequent. On the other hand, if properly managed, it could greatly improve efficiency, security, robustness, and sustainability.

At Caltech, Low and an interdisciplinary group of engineers, economists, mathematicians, and computer scientists pulled together by the Resnick Sustainability Institute, along with partners like Southern California Edison and the Department of Energy, are working to develop the devices, systems, theories, and algorithms to help guide this historic transformation and make sure that it is properly managed.

In 2012, the Resnick Sustainability Institute issued a report titled Grid 2020: Towards a Policy of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources, which focused on some of the major engineering, economic, and policy issues of the smart grid. That report led to a discussion series and working sessions that in turn led to the publication in 2014 of another report called More Than Smart: A Framework to Make the Distribution Grid More Open, Efficient and Resilient.

"One thing that makes the smart grid problem particularly appealing for us is that you can't solve it just as an engineer, just as a computer scientist, just as a control theorist, or just as an economist," says Adam Wierman, professor of computer science and Executive Officer for the Computing and Mathematical Sciences Department. "You actually have to bring to bear tools from all of these areas to solve the problem."

For example, he says, consider the problem of determining how much power various parts of the grid should generate at a particular time. This requires generating an amount of power that matches or closely approximates the amount of electricity demanded by customers. Currently this involves predicting electricity demand a day in advance, updating that prediction several hours before it is needed, and then figuring out how much nuclear power, natural gas, or coal will be produced to meet the demand. That determination is made through markets. In California, the California Independent System Operator runs a day-ahead electricity market in which utility companies and power plants buy and sell power generation for the following day. Then any small errors in the prediction are fixed at the last minute by engineers in a control office, with markets completely out of the picture.

"So you have a balance between the robustness and certainty provided by engineered control and the efficiency provided by markets and economic control," says Wierman. "But when renewable energy comes onto the table, all of a sudden the predictions of energy production are much less accurate, so the interaction between the markets and the engineering is up in the air, and no one knows how to handle this well." This, he says, is the type of problem the Caltech team, with its interdisciplinary approach, is uniquely equipped to address.

Indeed, the Caltech smart grid team is working on projects on the engineering side, projects on the markets side, and projects at the interface.

On the engineering side, a major project has revolved around a complex mathematical problem called optimal power flow that underlies many questions dealing with power system operations and planning. "Optimal power flow can tell you when things should be on or conserving energy, how to stabilize the voltage in the network as solar or wind generation fluctuates, or how to set your thermostat so that you maintain comfort in your building while stabilizing the voltage on the grid," explains Mani Chandy, the Simon Ramo Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus. "The problem has been around for 50 years but is extremely difficult to solve."

Chandy worked with Low; John Doyle, the Jean-Lou Chameau Professor of Control and Dynamical Systems, Electrical Engineering, and Bioengineering; and a number of Caltech students to devise a clever way to solve the problem, allowing them, for the first time, to compute a solution and then check whether that solution is globally optimal.

"We said, let's relax the constraints and optimize the cost over a bigger set that we can design to be solvable," explains Low. For example, if a customer is consuming electricity at a single location, the problem might ask how much electricity that individual is actually consuming; a relaxation would say that that person is consuming no more than a certain amount—it is a way of adding flexibility to a problem with tight constraints. "Almost magically, it turns out that if I design my physical set in a clever way, the solution for this larger simple set turns out to be the same as it would be for the original set."

The new approach produces a feasible solution for almost all distribution systems—the low-voltage networks that take power from larger substations and ultimately deliver it to the houses, buildings, street lights, and so on in a region. "That's important because many of the innovations in the energy sector in the coming decade will happen on distribution systems," says Low.

Another Caltech project attempts to predict how many home and business owners are likely to adopt rooftop solar panels over the next 5, 10, 20, or 30 years. In Southern California, the number of solar installations has increased steadily for several years. For planning purposes, utility companies need to anticipate whether that growth will continue and at what pace. For example, Low says, if the network is eventually going to comprise 15 or 20 percent renewables, then the current grid is robust enough. "But if we are going to have 50 or 80 percent renewables," he says, "then the grid will need huge changes in terms of both engineering and market design."

Working with Chandy, graduate students Desmond Cai and Anish Agarwal (BS '13, MS '15) developed a new model for predicting how many homes and businesses will install rooftop solar panels. The model has proven highly accurate. Researchers believe that whether or not people "go solar" depends largely on two factors: how much money they will save and their confidence in the new technology. The Caltech model, completed in 2012, indicates that the amount of money that people can save by installing rooftop solar has a huge influence on whether they will adopt the technology. Based on their research, the team has also developed a web-based tool that predicts how many people will install solar panels using a utility company's data. Southern California Edison's planning department is actively using the tool.

On the markets side, Caltech researchers are doing theoretical work looking at the smart grid and the network of markets it will produce. Electricity markets can be both complicated and interesting to study because unlike a traditional market—a single place where people go to buy and sell something—the electricity "market" actually consists of many networked marketplaces interacting in complicated ways.

One potential problem with this system and the introduction of more renewables, Wierman says, is that it opens the door for firms to manipulate prices by turning off generators. Whereas the operational status of a normal generator can be monitored, with solar and wind power, it is nearly impossible to verify how much power should have been produced because it is difficult to know whether it was windy or sunny at a certain time. "For example, you can significantly impact prices by pushing—or not pushing—solar energy from your solar farm," Wierman says. "There are huge opportunities for strongly manipulating market structure and prices in these environments. We are beginning to look at how to redesign markets so that this isn't as powerful or as dangerous."

An area of smart grid research where the Caltech team takes full advantage of its multidisciplinary nature is at the interface of engineering and markets. One example is a concept known as demand response, in which a mismatch between energy supply and demand can be addressed from the demand side (that is, by involving consumers), rather than from the power-generation side.

As an example of demand response, some utilities have started programs where participants, who have smart thermostats installed in their homes in exchange for some monetary reward, allow the company to turn off their air conditioners for a short period of time when it is necessary to reduce the demand on the grid. In that way, household air conditioners become "shock absorbers" for the system.

"But the economist says wait a minute, that's really inefficient. You might be turning the AC off for people who desperately want it on and leaving it on for people who couldn't care less," says John Ledyard, the Allen and Lenabelle Davis Professor of Economics and Social Sciences. A counter proposal is called Prices to Devices, where the utility sends price signals to devices, like thermostats, in homes and offices, and customers decide if they want to pay for power at those prices. Ledyard says while that is efficient rationing in equilibrium, it introduces a delay between the consumer and the utility, creating an instability in the dynamics of the system.

The Caltech team has devised an intermediate proposal that removes the delay in the system. Rather than sending a price and having consumers react to it, their program has consumers enter their sensitivity to various prices ahead of time, right on their smart devices. This can be done with a single number. Then those devices deliver that information to the algorithm that operates the network. For example, a consumer might program his or her smart thermostat, to effectively say, "If a kilowatt of power costs $1 and the temperature outside is 90 degrees, I want you to keep the air conditioner on; if the price is $5 and the temperature outside is 80 degrees, go ahead and turn it off."

"The consumer's response is handled by the algorithm, so there's no lag," says Ledyard.

Currently, the Caltech smart grid team is working closely with Southern California Edison to set up a pilot test in Orange County involving several thousand households. The homes will be equipped with various distributed energy resources including rooftop solar panels, electric vehicles, smart thermostats for air conditioners, and pool pumps. The team's new approach to the optimal power flow problem and demand response will be tested to see whether it can keep stable a miniature version of the future smart grid.

Such experiments are crucial for preparing for the major changes to the electrical system that are certainly coming down the road, Low says. "The stakes are high. In the face of this historic transformation, we need to do all that we can to minimize the risk and make sure that we realize the full potential."

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Kimm Fesenmaier
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Toward a Smarter Grid
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Making A World of Difference: Engineers Week

On October 1, 2015, Caltech celebrated the launch of Engineers Week with a panel discussion on diversity and how engineers are making a world of difference. The launch was designed to energize national and international groups in their planning of programs and events to celebrate the accomplishments of engineers as well as to inspire the next generation during Engineers Week, which will be February 21–26, 2016. 

The Caltech event and webcast was opened by Caltech president Thomas F. Rosenbaum, the Sonja and William Davidow Presidential Chair and professor of physics, and the panel was moderated by Guruswami "Ravi" Ravichandran, the holder of the Otis Booth Leadership Chair of the Division of Engineering and Applied Science and the John E. Goode, Jr., Professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. The in-person audience included members of the Engineering and Environmental Science Academy at Pasadena's John Muir High School as well as Caltech students who are members of the Society of Women Engineers, Engineers Without Borders, and Science & Engineering Policy at Caltech.

Panel members included: Domniki Asimaki, Caltech professor of mechanical and civil engineering; Caltech senior Aileen Cheng, the president of the Caltech Society of Women Engineers; Sandra H. Magnus, executive director of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Andrew Smart, director of Society Programs and Industry Relations for SAE International; and John J. Tracy, chief technology officer of The Boeing Company.

As part of the wide-ranging discussion, the panelists shared with the audience an engineering accomplishment or solution that stirred their imagination. When asked to describe the motivation for her future research endeavors, Cheng recalled her response as a young girl to learning that her father was ill. "When I first learned my dad had Hepatitis B, I said, 'I've got to cure him'"—sparking an early interest in bioengineering, which she has also combined with computer science at Caltech. "I decided to look at ways to help people live longer."

The launch of Engineers Week is an annual event organized by DiscoverE, a foundation dedicated to sustaining and growing a dynamic engineering profession through outreach, education, celebration, and volunteerism. Each year an academic and a corporate partner are chosen to host the event and webcast. This year the academic partner was Caltech and the corporate partner was The Boeing Company.

Learn more about the 2016 Engineers Week by visiting http://www.discovere.org/our-programs/engineers-week.

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Trity Pourbahrami
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Making A World of Difference
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On October 1, 2015, Caltech celebrated the launch of Engineers Week with a panel discussion on diversity and how engineers are making a world of difference.
Wednesday, November 11, 2015
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space) – Center for Student Services

Communication Strategies for Tutoring and Office Hours

Friday, October 23, 2015
Winnett Lounge – Winnett Student Center

TeachWeek Caltech Capstone Panel

Friday, October 16, 2015
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space) – Center for Student Services

Course Ombudsperson Training, Fall 2015

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