Faraon Receives CAREER Grant from National Science Foundation

Andrei Faraon (BS '04) has received a Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) grant from the National Science Foundation for his proposal titled "Quantum Light-Matter Interfaces Based on Rare-Earth Ions and Nanophotonics." The grant is the NSF's most prestigious award for junior faculty members. Each award provides a minimum of $500,000 over five years to "pursue outstanding research, excellent education and the integration of education and research within the context of the mission of their organizations."

Faraon, who joined the Caltech faculty in 2012 as an assistant professor of applied physics and material science, will use the grant to research elements of quantum machines. These machines can theoretically process information in a faster and more secure way than current technologies by manipulating the quantum states of atoms and photons. Faraon's group will focus on building interfaces between light and matter that will enable efficient storage, retrieval, and transmission of quantum information.

To illustrate this work to a diverse audience of nonscientists, and as a part of the CAREER grant, Faraon and his group will work with students at Navajo Preparatory School, a high school just outside the Navajo Nation Reservation in Farmington, New Mexico. Members of the Faraon group and the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have previously worked with the school as part of an outreach program.

Faraon also recently received a grant from the Air Force's Young Investigator Research Program for his work with light-matter interfaces and quantum computation.

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Two Caltech Seniors Win Hertz Fellowships

Adam Jermyn and Charles Tschirhart join the 51st class of Hertz fellows

Caltech seniors Adam Jermyn and Charles Tschirhart have been named 2015 Hertz Fellowship winners. Selected from a pool of approximately 800 applicants, the awardees will receive up to five years of support for their graduate studies. According to the Hertz Foundation, fellows are chosen for their intellect, their ingenuity, and their potential to bring meaningful improvement to society. Jermyn and Tschirhart bring the number of Caltech undergraduate Hertz fellows to 60.

Adam Jermyn, a physics major from Longmeadow, Massachusetts, works with so-called "emergent phenomena," which "is a broad term referring to situations where we know all of the laws on a fundamental level but where there are so many pieces working together that the consequences aren't known," he says. For example, the basic laws governing fluid mechanics are simple equations that relate such easily measured quantities as density, velocity, and temperature to one another, but simulating the behavior of two gases as they mix in a turbulent flow can tax the capacity of a supercomputer.

Jermyn's senior thesis models how a pulsar—a type of celestial radio source that flashes as fast as a thousand times per second—disrupts the atmosphere of a companion star. Pulsars are neutron stars—supernova cinders that pack the mass of a couple of suns into a sphere roughly the size of Manhattan. The spin imparted by the supernova's explosion and equally violent collapse creates a beam of tightly focused radio waves. If a neutron star were "aimed" at Earth, the beam's fleeting illumination would register as a flash in our radio telescopes every time it swept across us. Meanwhile, the pulsar's intense gravity distorts the companion star, creating a bulge on its surface. Like Earth's moon, the star's rotation is tidally locked, always presenting the same side to its dominant neighbor. The companion star's atmosphere gets siphoned away, layer by layer, forming a turbulent tendril of gas that winds in an ever-tightening spiral around the pulsar as the stolen material accretes onto its surface.

Charles Tschirhart of Naperville, Illinois, is a double major in applied physics and chemistry. His interests lie at the opposite end of the scale—in the world of nanotechnology, where lengths are measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter. In the summer of 2012, he was part of a team that built nanoelectrodes—tiny silicon needles that penetrate a cell wall without damaging the cell to monitor the electrical activity within.

Tschirhart and Jermyn share an interest in fluid mechanics. "I think the biggest difference between what Adam and I do is that he is a theorist, and I am an experimentalist," Tschirhart says. "Physicists pretend that a fluid is a continuum of infinitely divisible matter and thus doesn't have any 'graininess' to it." But because atoms and molecules do have finite sizes, "once you get down to small enough scales," he says, "even water becomes 'grainy.'" The fluid becomes more viscous, as it takes effort to force the grains past one another. For his senior thesis, Tschirhart determined the nanoviscosity of silicone oil by measuring the thickness of a thin film of oil, smearing it even thinner with a stream of air and measuring its thickness again. The thickness should decrease in a linear manner, but this doesn't happen when the layer gets thin enough. "These films aren't much thicker than the size of a molecule," he says. "This is where noncontinuum effects show up." These effects could affect how engineers approach tasks as diverse as lubricating hard drives and extracting crude oil from porous rocks.

Both students took Physics 11, a course taught by the late Professor Thomas Tombrello. Tombrello launched this class in 1989 to teach encourage freshman to think creatively, and taught it annually until his death in September 2014. This year, Jermyn and Tschirhart are helping teach it. "Physics 11 really shaped the way I ask questions, and I have Tom Tombrello to thank for that," says Jermyn. "He pushed us to think about things obliquely," Tschirhart concurs. "After I got over my initial nerves, I found myself enjoying [the two rounds of Hertz interviews], which made it much easier to answer the questions creatively."

Both plan to defer their Hertz doctoral fellowships while they take advanced degrees in England. Tschirhart will be attending the University of Nottingham as a Fulbright Scholar for one year, where he plans to develop new applications for atomic force microscopy, a powerful technique for "photographing" nanoscale objects. Jermyn will be at the University of Cambridge for two years as a Marshall Scholar investigating the processes by which planets form around binary star systems.

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New Camera Chip Provides Superfine 3-D Resolution

Imagine you need to have an almost exact copy of an object. Now imagine that you can just pull your smartphone out of your pocket, take a snapshot with its integrated 3-D imager, send it to your 3-D printer, and within minutes you have reproduced a replica accurate to within microns of the original object. This feat may soon be possible because of a new, tiny high-resolution 3-D imager developed at Caltech.

Any time you want to make an exact copy of an object with a 3-D printer, the first step is to produce a high-resolution scan of the object with a 3-D camera that measures its height, width, and depth. Such 3-D imaging has been around for decades, but the most sensitive systems generally are too large and expensive to be used in consumer applications.

A cheap, compact yet highly accurate new device known as a nanophotonic coherent imager (NCI) promises to change that. Using an inexpensive silicon chip less than a millimeter square in size, the NCI provides the highest depth-measurement accuracy of any such nanophotonic 3-D imaging device.

The work, done in the laboratory of Ali Hajimiri, the Thomas G. Myers Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, is described in the February 2015 issue of Optics Express.

In a regular camera, each pixel represents the intensity of the light received from a specific point in the image, which could be near or far from the camera—meaning that the pixels provide no information about the relative distance of the object from the camera. In contrast, each pixel in an image created by the Caltech team's NCI provides both the distance and intensity information. "Each pixel on the chip is an independent interferometer—an instrument that uses the interference of light waves to make precise measurements—which detects the phase and frequency of the signal in addition to the intensity," says Hajimiri.



Three dimensional map of the hills and valleys on a U.S. penny obtained with the nano-photonic coherent imager at the distance of 0.5 meters.

The new chip utilizes an established detection and ranging technology called LIDAR, in which a target object is illuminated with scanning laser beams. The light that reflects off of the object is then analyzed based on the wavelength of the laser light used, and the LIDAR can gather information about the object's size and its distance from the laser to create an image of its surroundings. "By having an array of tiny LIDARs on our coherent imager, we can simultaneously image different parts of an object or a scene without the need for any mechanical movements within the imager," Hajimiri says.

Such high-resolution images and information provided by the NCI are made possible because of an optical concept known as coherence. If two light waves are coherent, the waves have the same frequency, and the peaks and troughs of light waves are exactly aligned with one another. In the NCI, the object is illuminated with this coherent light. The light that is reflected off of the object is then picked up by on-chip detectors, called grating couplers, that serve as "pixels," as the light detected from each coupler represents one pixel on the 3-D image. On the NCI chip, the phase, frequency, and intensity of the reflected light from different points on the object is detected and used to determine the exact distance of the target point.

Because the coherent light has a consistent frequency and wavelength, it is used as a reference with which to measure the differences in the reflected light. In this way, the NCI uses the coherent light as sort of a very precise ruler to measure the size of the object and the distance of each point on the object from the camera. The light is then converted into an electrical signal that contains intensity and distance information for each pixel—all of the information needed to create a 3-D image.

The incorporation of coherent light not only allows 3-D imaging with the highest level of depth-measurement accuracy ever achieved in silicon photonics, it also makes it possible for the device to fit in a very small size. "By coupling, confining, and processing the reflected light in small pipes on a silicon chip, we were able to scale each LIDAR element down to just a couple of hundred microns in size—small enough that we can form an array of 16 of these coherent detectors on an active area of 300 microns by 300 microns," Hajimiri says.

The first proof of concept of the NCI has only 16 coherent pixels, meaning that the 3-D images it produces can only be 16 pixels at any given instance. However, the researchers also developed a method for imaging larger objects by first imaging a four-pixel-by-four-pixel section, then moving the object in four-pixel increments to image the next section. With this method, the team used the device to scan and create a 3-D image of the "hills and valleys" on the front face of a U.S. penny—with micron-level resolution—from half a meter away.

In the future, Hajimiri says, the current array of 16 pixels could also be easily scaled up to hundreds of thousands. One day, by creating such vast arrays of these tiny LIDARs, the imager could be applied to a broad range of applications from very precise 3-D scanning and printing to helping driverless cars avoid collisions to improving motion sensitivity in superfine human machine interfaces, where the slightest movements of a patient's eyes and the most minute changes in a patient's heartbeat can be detected on the fly.

"The small size and high quality of this new chip-based imager will result in significant cost reductions, which will enable thousands of new uses for such systems by incorporating them into personal devices such as smartphones," he says.

The study was published in a paper titled, "Nanophotonic coherent imager." In addition to Hajimiri, other Caltech coauthors include former postdoctoral scholar and current assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Firooz Aflatouni, graduate student Behrooz Abiri, and Angad Rekhi (BS '14). This work was partially funded by Caltech Innovation Initiative.

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Caltech Space Challenge: Mission to an Asteroid in Lunar Orbit

For one week at the end of March, 32 students from 20 universities and 14 countries came to Caltech for an intensive training experience in space mission design: the Caltech Space Challenge. Organizers hand-selected the undergraduate and graduate students from a pool of 220 applicants and created two "dream teams" of engineers, scientists, and designers to face off in a competition to see who could design the best mission.

This year, the teams—Team Explorer and Team Voyager—were tasked with designing a manned mission to an asteroid placed in orbit around the moon. Aside from determining details such as the best type of vehicle to use, the optimal launch date, and how to keep the astronauts safe, each team was asked to explain how its mission would explore and make use of the asteroid to enable future missions to more distant locales, such as Mars.

The Space Challenge takes place at Caltech every two years. For the inaugural challenge in 2011, participants designed a manned mission to a near-Earth asteroid. Two years later, the challenge involved planning a mission to one of Mars's moons.

This year, organizers based the challenge on NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), proposed for launch in 2020. The concept of that mission is to send a robotic spacecraft to a near-Earth asteroid, have it remove a large boulder from the asteroid's surface, and then move it into a lunar orbit. A version of a mission originally considered by the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at Caltech, NASA's ARM is part of a larger strategy to use asteroids as a stepping-stone to manned missions to Mars and beyond.

"KISS came up with this idea to redirect an asteroid and bring it here as a way to fulfill President Obama's vision of people going to an asteroid by 2025," explains Hayden Burgoyne, a graduate student in space engineering at Caltech and one of two student lead organizers for this year's challenge. "Basically, they said, 'It's hard to send people to an asteroid; it's easier to bring an asteroid to us.' But people are looking toward the end goal of Mars, and they want to know how the Asteroid Redirect Mission will help us get there. So we framed this challenge as a resource utilization challenge to show how this resource that they bring back—this asteroid—can be used to benefit future human exploration."

Throughout the week, the students attended lectures delivered by scientists and engineers from JPL and the aerospace industry on topics related to the challenge, such as mission formulation, human space exploration, asteroid mining, and chemical propulsion. They were also able to consult with mentors working in related fields who were available to help the teams troubleshoot.

"Basically, we brought together the best of the best," says Niccolo Cymbalist, a graduate student in aeronautics at Caltech and the event's other student lead organizer. "But one of the neat things is that the students had the opportunity to interact with sort of their future selves. The speakers and mentors who came in from JPL and from industry are also at the top of their fields, and many participants from previous years have gone on to work in space-related fields."

This year, the teams also had the opportunity to complete a half-day formalized study with a group in the Innovation Foundry at JPL, known as the A-Team. These JPL scientists and engineers help explore, develop, and evaluate early mission concepts and were able to advise the students on science, implementation, and programmatic elements of their respective missions.

At the end of the week, both teams turned in written reports and presented their mission concepts to an audience that included jurors from Caltech, JPL, the Planetary Society, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, SpaceX, and Millennium Space Systems.

In their mission plans, both groups opted to use two rockets—one to launch scientific cargo and another at a later date to deliver the crew. They also both decided that three astronauts would be optimal for this mission.

Beyond those similarities, though, the two teams had quite different approaches to the challenge. Team Explorer had the idea to use an autonomous swarm of robots to characterize the topology of the asteroid and to collect samples both at the surface and at depth, using a specially designed chamber to extract volatiles. They planned to purify water found on the asteroid, demonstrating that it could be used in a variety of ways, including to water a lettuce garden—something that might capture the attention of the general public. The mission would also determine whether the asteroid could be used as a resource depot for other missions, or as part of the Deep Space Network to help facilitate communication between Earth and operating spacecraft.

In contrast, Team Voyager planned to join their mission's cargo and crew vehicles with an inflatable habitat brought along as cargo once their astronauts reached the asteroid. The astronauts would then spend five days using a robotic arm to drill and to conduct seismic surveys as they determined whether it was safe to explore the asteroid further. They also would bring a suite of scientific instruments with them, including a device to extract oxygen, hydrogen, and methanol from the asteroid, and they would collect and return samples to Earth from the asteroid's subsurface core. Team Voyager's plan for engaging the public included social media and a live feed from a 3-D HD 360-degree camera mounted on an astronaut's helmet.

The organizers say both teams presented outstanding missions. "I was blown away by the quality of the work that the students produced," says Burgoyne.

The final results were presented at a closing reception and banquet at the Athenaeum on March 27. In the end, Team Voyager came out slightly ahead of Team Explorer. According to the jury, the deciding factor was Team Voyager's presentation and success in turning their technically detailed report into a compelling story for the audience.

Alicia Lanz, a member of Team Voyager and a graduate student in physics at Caltech, says the best part of the experience was meeting and working with people from various parts of the world and with different scientific training. "It was so interesting to learn from people with different backgrounds and to see everyone work together to create a viable mission that was greater than anything a single individual could have contributed," she says. "The Caltech Space Challenge was an amazing opportunity."

The student technical lead for this year's Space Challenge was Jay Qi, a graduate student in mechanical engineering at Caltech. The faculty advisor was Beverley McKeon, professor of aeronautics at Caltech and associate director of the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT). Leon Alkalai of JPL was the program mentor. The Space Challenge is organized by GALCIT and supported by Caltech and its Division of Engineering and Applied Science, JPL, KISS, and corporate sponsors including Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, SpaceX, Millennium Space Systems, and AGI.

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A Spotlight on Inventing

On Thursday, March 19, Caltech is hosting the fourth annual conference of the National Academy of Inventors. The NAI is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 2010 by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to encourage inventors and also enhance the visibility and understanding of the value of academic technology and innovation.

Its annual conference will bring hundreds of NAI members—inventors, researchers, scientists, engineers, and scholars from more than 200 institutions around the country—to Caltech. While here, they will share big ideas, discuss opportunities for future innovations, and also celebrate the newest class of NAI fellows. According to the NAI, election to fellow status is a "high professional distinction accorded to academic inventors who have demonstrated a highly prolific spirit of innovation in creating or facilitating outstanding inventions that have made a tangible impact on quality of life, economic development, and the welfare of society." The newest class of 170 fellows includes four Caltech professors.

The conference is "a very exciting opportunity for Caltech," says Caltech vice provost Morteza Gharib (PhD '83), the Hans W. Liepmann Professor of Aeronautics and Bioinspired Engineering, and an NAI charter fellow. "Having an organization that brings some of our greatest minds together to look at the problems we are facing and support them in finding solutions is a noble cause, and we at Caltech are proud to be supporters of that."

Advancing innovation and the transfer of new technologies and ideas to society and industry is both a personal and professional passion for Gharib. The holder of nearly 100 patents, he leads a research group at Caltech that studies examples from the natural world—fins, wings, blood vessels, embryonic structures, and entire organisms—to gain inspiration for inventions that have practical uses in power generation, drug delivery, dentistry, and more. As vice provost, he also oversees Caltech's Office of Technology Transfer and Corporate Partnerships. OTT plays an instrumental role in helping Caltech's researchers commercially realize their ideas, making sure that their work is protected, patented, and licensed along the way. As of the close of fiscal year 2014, Caltech managed more than 1,700 active U.S. patents. Since the office was established in 1995, its staff has helped launch more than 150 start-up companies.

To learn more about what it means to be an inventor, we recently chatted with Gharib and two of Caltech's newest NAI fellows—Frances Arnold and Carver Mead (BS '56, MS '57, PhD '60).

Arnold, the Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry, and director of the Donna and Benjamin M. Rosen Bioengineering Center, pioneered methods of "directed evolution" to engineer new proteins in the lab. The method is now widely used to create catalysts for industrial processes, including the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources.

Mead, the Gordon and Betty Moore Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, Emeritus, has significantly advanced the technology of integrated circuits by developing a method called very-large-scale integration (VSLI) that allows engineers to combine thousands of transistors onto a single microchip, thus exponentially expanding computer processing power.

 

What does it mean to be an inventor?

Arnold: It means I get to play—with ideas—and create new things that solve problems.

Gharib: An inventor is someone who has the ability to summarize what had not been before into something that has a new form and is novel.

Inventing is not a sudden process either; you don't just come up with an invention. It comes from where you have been, all the influences you have received from your education, your community, and the environment that you are in—from whether you have been challenged or excited by problems.

Mead: I have never thought of myself as an inventor! I always thought of myself as a guy who figures things out and then it just turned out that every once in a while something that I "figured out" would be important. Some of those things turned into inventions. I am just a creative person. I'm someone who likes to solve problems.

 

How does the invention process relate to the scientific process?

Arnold: Many scientists pursue the answer to a question: "How does this work?" Inventors often pursue an answer to a problem: "How can I get this to work?"

Gharib: It's not the same path. Remember that engineers basically invented locomotives, and it wasn't until half a century later that we actually understood the laws of thermodynamics and why this works.

The scientific process is systematic. It relies on certain logical steps that you take—from defining the problem, testing what works, eliminating problems—and that pushes you to be able to be in a position to discover. But in inventing, you see the solutions without knowing or needing to understand why and pursue that.

Mead: For me, it's all the same. I have the same approach for all of my work—it's all just about figuring things out.

 

How has Caltech supported you as an inventor?

Arnold: Caltech has provided me with great students and with the financial support to pursue new ideas, and then not placed the traditional academic constraints on what we can pursue.

Gharib: Our inventors see an environment that is conducive to inventing. Caltech supports them to get their idea translated from the lab into something that is useful, something that is protected, and something that will have a societal impact.

The best example I have of that is that I didn't own a single patent before I came to Caltech—even though I was in academia for 10 years before coming here. It wasn't that I didn't have ideas, it was just that I didn't have a motivation for pursuing those ideas. When I came here, I saw that you can really take your ideas and make them into something for industry, for society, for faculty, and so on, to benefit from.

Mead: I think the best thing Caltech did for me is leave me alone, because I could pursue the things that I felt strongly about. It's always taken a very long time for me to move after having the first inkling of some direction or idea that I am drawn to. I might work for five years on something before I can fully explain to people why I am working on it.

I think Caltech is very special in that way; it doesn't interfere with the creative process.

 

What invention of yours are you most proud of? Why? 

Arnold: I am lucky to have been the first to show how evolution can be used to construct a whole slew of new and useful catalysts. This is a fundamental process that can be used to solve so many important problems. It has been picked up and used by hundreds of academic and industrial labs, all over the world, for everything from making better laundry detergents to producing fuels from renewable resources.

Gharib: Seventy-thousand people have a shunt in their eyes that I developed, and that is helping them avoid having to deal with issues of glaucoma. In addition to that, a 3-D imaging device that I originally developed for naval underwater surveillance is now being used for making dental crowns.

It is a good feeling when you see one of your patents have societal impact.

Mead: My work in the area of very-large-scale integration—figuring out how transistors could scale up and how you could build them better—has affected the world in a profound way, and I am pleased to be a part of that. You can think of it as inventing a method, a way through, but not as a tangible invention of the usual sort.

In regards to more traditional "inventions," there are a couple of other things that have gone out into the world and made a difference. The first was the Schottky-gate field-effect transistor, which I created over Thanksgiving in 1965. It is in the transmitters of all cell phones. The second was an advancement that a graduate student of mine led. He came up with a way of making semiconductor charge-coupled devices (CCDs) work more efficiently, which enabled them to be used in the imaging world. CCDs are still the imaging sensor that is used in astronomical instruments.

Of course, you never know when you are doing something whether it will really be accepted and if people will move on it. So when it happens—when people take something that you do seriously—it's kind of surprising.

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Contest Unleashes Aquamania in Millikan Pond

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Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech Office of Strategic Communications

A robot enters the water during the first round of the competition. During the first 30 seconds of each round, the robots had to operate completely autonomously—meaning they had to be able to enter the water without any human intervention. Once the 30 seconds were over, the students were able to direct the robots through the water via remote control.

Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech Office of Strategic Communications

Teammates Joaquin Gabaldon and Melissa Chang prepare to send their robot into the water. Because the students had to build their robots within a limited budget, many teams came up with inventive and affordable solutions—such as the duct tape and chicken wire seen on the front of the team KOOPAS robot here—to help resolve design and engineering challenges.

Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech Office of Strategic Communications

Joaquin Gabaldon (in blue) from team KOOPAS drives his team's robot using a remote control while Dan Chui, Jalani Williams, and Margaret Lee from team T.O.A.D. look on. In the first two rounds of the Aquamania, teams paired up to compete against other pairs of teams for the most points.

Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech Office of Strategic Communications

Rob Anderson, Anup Kishore, and Naveen Tadepalli celebrate a victory for their team's robot.

Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech Office of Strategic Communications

Basith Fahumy uses a remote control to guide team AXOLOTL's robot toward a small red ball. In the competition, teams scored points by moving balls their color past a gate.

Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech Office of Strategic Communications

The audience, including students from several local elementary and middle schools, watches as two robots enter the water and begin their battle.

Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech Office of Strategic Communications

KATS, the winning team, poses with their trophy in Millikan Pond. (Left to right: Tammer Eweis-Labolle, Kristin Eliason, Sheila Lo, and Auggie Nanz)

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Amphibious robots took to Millikan Pond on Tuesday, March 10, each one hoping to come away with the title "Aquamania champion." At the event, teams of students tested their robotic athletes in the 30th annual Mechanical Engineering 72 (ME72) competition—a campus tradition that also serves as a final exam for mechanical engineering students enrolled in the two-term ME72 design lab in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science. In this year's competition, the student teams were tasked with designing and building robots that could successfully drive down a ramp into Millikan Pond and then navigate through the water to move inflatable balls of various sizes past a series of gates. At the end of each round, points were tallied based on how many balls each robot successfully moved past each gate. Eight teams competed for this year's title, and after three intense (and very wet) rounds, team KATS—named for teammates and Caltech juniors Kristin Eliason, Auggie Nanz, Tammer Eweis-Labolle, and Sheila Lo—walked away with the trophy.

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