Three's Not a Crowd

The public high school in Blue Springs, Missouri, just outside Kansas City, graduates more than 500 seniors each year. Remarkably, the valedictorian in 2015 was the younger sister of the valedictorian in 2014—who was the younger sister of the valedictorian in 2013.

And all three are now Caltech undergraduates.

These are the Butkovich sisters: junior Slava and sophomore Nina, both majoring in chemical engineering, and freshman Lazarina ("Laza"), currently deciding between chemical engineering and chemistry.

"In the nearly half-century since Caltech began admitting women to its undergraduate program, 2015 is almost certainly the first year we've had three sisters enrolled in three different graduating classes at the same time," notes Barbara Green, interim dean of undergraduate students." The sisters represent "a three-peat," says Caltech admissions director Jarrid Whitney, not a package deal. "All our applicants are reviewed independently and without regard to siblings, parents, or other legacies. For three family members to receive consecutive offers of admission indicates how tremendously talented all three of them must be."

For their part, Slava, Nina, and Laza find their own nearly identical trajectories unsurprising. "We were taught at a young age that science majors can do a lot of good for society," Slava explains. "Anyway," adds Nina, "science is more objective than other things, like English and law. It has right answers."

Instead, they give much of the credit for nurturing their talents to their father, who is a lawyer, and their mother, a chemical engineer. They also single out recently retired Blue Springs High chemistry teacher Evan Manuel. "He's the above-and-beyond teacher," says Nina. "His passion for the sciences inspires his students."

Manuel praises the sisters for having "high expectations—not just of themselves but of others around them. I'm sure it's because of how they were brought up. And they've generously shared that perspective with their peers."

For example, the three young women, whose own heritage is Slavic and Filipino, cofounded their school's Association for Cultural and Ethnic Diversity and hosted its monthly world culture celebrations. That willingness to serve, says Manuel, earned them the respect of their peers. "And it's not a far-removed, no-interaction, pedestal kind of respect," he adds. "They like helping people, so people like them. Their college recommendation letters were some of the easiest I've ever been asked to write."

Even before landing in Pasadena, they had already completed summer research projects in university chemistry labs: Slava at Baylor and Missouri S&T, her sisters at the University of Iowa. They also tutored classmates in a variety of subjects in between sitting for a combined total of almost four dozen AP exams, many in subjects not even offered by their school.

At Caltech, all three Butkoviches will be pursuing summer research opportunities. Slava, who is planning a career in anti-cancer research, was named a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) fellow last year. They are active in the undergraduate house system (Nina is a member of Ruddock House; Laza and Slava are members of Dabney) and have taken part in yoga, tennis, tai chi, karate, and the NERF club. Their course loads are challenging, but none are carrying an overload. "I don't think extreme units is smart," Nina says.

In fact, according to all three, one of the biggest challenges since leaving high school has been learning to rely on something they had honestly never needed before now: study groups.

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The Butkovich sisters—junior Slava, sophomore Nina, and freshman Lazarina—find their own nearly identical trajectories unsurprising.

When Harry Met Arnold

A Milestone in Chemistry

On November 12 and 13, the Beckman Institute at Caltech hosted a symposium on "The Shared Legacy of Arnold Beckman and Harry Gray." The two began a close working relationship in the late 1960s, when Gray arrived at Caltech. In this interview, Gray provides some background.

How did you come to Caltech?

I grew up in southern Kentucky. I got my BS in chemistry in 1957, and my professors told me to go to grad school at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, to continue my studies in synthetic organic chemistry. They didn't give me a choice. Western Kentucky College had physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, and that was it.

When I got to Northwestern I met Fred Basolo, who became my mentor. He did inorganic chemistry, which I was very surprised to discover even existed as a research field. I was so excited by his work, which was studying the mechanisms of inorganic reactions, that I decided to switch fields and do what he did. I got my PhD in 1960 from work on the syntheses and reaction mechanisms of platinum, rhodium, palladium, and nickel complexes. A complex has a metal atom sitting in the middle of as many as six ions or molecules called ligands. The metal has empty orbitals that it wants to fill with paired-up electrons, and the ligands have electron pairs they aren't using, so the metal and its ligands form stable bonds.

I had gotten into chemistry in the first place because I'd always been interested in colors. Even when I was a little kid, colors fascinated me. I really wanted to understand them, and many complexes have brilliant, beautiful colors. At Northwestern I heard about crystal-field theory, which was the first attempt to explain how metal complexes got their colors. All the crystal-field theory's big shots were in Copenhagen, so I decided to go there as a postdoc. Which I did.

I soon found out that crystal-field theory didn't go far enough. It only explained the colors of a limited set of metal ions in solution, and it couldn't explain charge transfers and a lot of other things. All the atoms were treated as point charges, with no provision for the bonds between the metal and the ligands. There weren't any bonds. So I helped develop a new theory, called ligand-field theory, which put the bonds back in the complexes. Carl Ballhausen, a professor at the University of Copenhagen, and I wrote a paper on a "metal-oxo" complex in which an oxygen atom was triple-bonded to a vanadium ion. The triple bond in our theory was required to account for the blue color of the vanadium-oxo complex. We also could explain charge transfers in other oxo complexes. Bonds were back in metal complexes!

Metal-oxo bonds are very important in biology. They are crucial in a lot of reactions, such as the oxygen-producing side of photosynthesis; the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P-450, which often leads to toxic interactions with other drugs; and respiration. When we breathe in O2, our respiratory system splits the O=O bond, forming a metal-oxo complex as a reactive intermediate on the way to the product, which is water.

My work on bonding in metal oxo complexes got me a job as an assistant professor at Columbia University in 1961. By '65 I was a full professor and getting offers from many places, including Caltech. I loved Columbia, and I would have stayed there, but the chemistry department was very small. I knew it would be hard to build inorganic chemistry in a small department that concentrated on organic and physical chemistry.

There weren't any inorganic chemists at Caltech, either, but division chair Jack Roberts encouraged me to build the field up to five or six faculty members. I came to Caltech in 1966, and we now have a very strong inorganic chemistry group.

When I got here, I started work in two new areas at the interface of inorganic chemistry and biology. I'm best known for my work showing how electrons flow through proteins in respiration and photosynthesis. I won the Wolf Prize and the Welch Prize and the National Medal of Science for this work.

I also got into inorganic photochemistry—solar-energy research. That work started well before the first energy crisis in 1973, and continued until oil became cheap again in the early 1980s and solar-energy research was no longer supported. In the late '90s, I restarted the work. Now I'm leading an NSF Center for Chemical Innovation in Solar Fuels, which has an outreach activity I proudly call the Solar Army.

And how's that going?

The Solar Army keeps growing. We now have at least 60 brigades at high schools across the U.S., and 10 more abroad. I'd say that about 1,000 students have been through the program since 2008. We're getting young scientists involved in research that could have a profound effect on the world they're going to inherit. They're helping us look for light absorbers and catalysts to turn water into hydrogen fuel, using nothing but sunlight. The solar materials need to be sturdy metal oxides that are abundant and dirt cheap. But there are many metals in the periodic table. When you start combining them in twos and threes in varying amounts, there are literally millions of possibilities to be tested. We already have found several very good water oxidation and reduction catalysts, and since the National Science Foundation has just renewed our CCI Solar Fuels grant, we expect to make great progress in the coming years in understanding how they work.

Let's shift gears and talk about the Beckman Institute. How did you first meet Arnold Beckman [PhD '28, inventor of the pH meter, founder of Beckman Instruments, and a Life Trustee of Caltech]?

I gave a talk back in 1967, probably on Alumni Day. Arnold was the chair of Caltech's Board of Trustees at the time, and he and his wife, Mabel, were seated in the second row. When the talk was over, they came down and introduced themselves. Mabel said—and I remember this very well—she said, "Arnold, I didn't understand much of what this young man said, but I really liked the way he said it." Arnold gave me the thumbs up, and that started our relationship.

When I became chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in 1978, I asked him to be on my advisory committee. I didn't ask him for money, but I asked him for advice, and we became quite close. He said he wanted to do something for us. That led to his gift for the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Laboratory of Chemical Synthesis, as well as a gift for instrumentation.

He liked it that we raised money to match his instrument gift. He told me that he wanted to do something bigger, so we started thinking about building the Beckman Institute. [Caltech President] Murph Goldberger and I would go down to Orange County about every week with a new plan. He rejected the first four or five until we came up with the idea of developing technology to support chemistry and biology—methods and instruments for fundamental research—and creating resource centers to house them.

Once we agreed on what the building should house, we started planning the building itself. But when we showed Arnold our design, which was four stories plus a basement, he said, "That's not big enough. You need another floor for growth." So we added a subbasement that was quickly occupied by a resource center for magnetic-resonance imaging and optical imaging that has been heavily used by biologists, chemists, and other investigators.

The Beckman Institute has done a lot over the last 25 years. But it develops technology for general research use, so it doesn't often make the headlines itself. Are you OK with that?

Many advances in science and technology have been made in the Beckman Institute over the last 25 years. The methods and instruments that have been developed in BI resource centers have made enormous impacts at the frontiers of chemistry and biology. Solar-fuels science and human biology are just two examples of areas where work in the Beckman Institute has made a big difference. And there are many more. Am I proud? You bet I am!

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Douglas Smith
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When Harry Met Arnold
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Caltech celebrates the 25th year of the Beckman Institute and the 80th birthday of Harry Gray, the Beckman Professor of Chemistry and the founding director of the institute.
Monday, November 30, 2015

Microbial diners, drive-ins, and dives: deep-sea edition

Elachi to Retire as JPL Director

Charles Elachi (MS '69, PhD '71) has announced his intention to retire as director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on June 30, 2016, and move to campus as professor emeritus. A national search is underway to identify his successor.

"A frequently consulted national and international expert on space science, Charles is known for his broad expertise, boundless energy, conceptual acuity, and deep devotion to JPL, campus, and NASA," said Caltech president Thomas F. Rosenbaum in a statement to the Caltech community. "Over the course of his 45-year career at JPL, Charles has tirelessly pursued new opportunities, enhanced the Laboratory, and demonstrated expert and nimble leadership. Under Charles' leadership over the last 15 years, JPL has become a prized performer in the NASA system and is widely regarded as a model for conceiving and implementing robotic space science missions."

With Elachi at JPL's helm, an array of missions has provided new understanding of our planet, our moon, our sun, our solar system, and the larger universe. The GRAIL mission mapped the moon's gravity; the Genesis space probe returned to Earth samples of the solar wind; Deep Impact intentionally collided with a comet; Dawn pioneered the use of ion propulsion to visit the asteroids Ceres and Vesta; and Voyager became the first human-made object to reach interstellar space. A suite of missions to Mars, from orbiters to the rovers Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity, has provided exquisite detail of the red planet; Cassini continues its exploration of Saturn and its moons; and the Juno spacecraft, en route to a July 2016 rendezvous, promises to provide new insights about Jupiter. Missions such as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the Spitzer Space Telescope, Kepler, WISE, and NuSTAR have revolutionized our understanding of our place in the universe.

Future JPL missions developed under Elachi's guidance include Mars 2020, Europa Clipper, the Asteroid Redirect Mission, Jason 3, Aquarius, OCO-2, SWOT, and NISAR.

Elachi joined JPL in 1970 as a student intern and was appointed director and Caltech vice president in 2001. During his more than four decades at JPL, he led a team that pioneered the use of space-based radar imaging of the Earth and the planets, served as principal investigator on a number of NASA-sponsored studies and flight projects, authored more than 230 publications in the fields of active microwave remote sensing and electromagnetic theory, received several patents, and became the director for space and earth science missions and instruments. At Caltech, he taught a course on the physics of remote sensing for nearly 20 years

Born in Lebanon, Elachi received his B.Sc. ('68) in physics from University of Grenoble, France and the Dipl. Ing. ('68) in engineering from the Polytechnic Institute, Grenoble. In addition to his MS and PhD degrees in electrical science from Caltech, he also holds an MBA from the University of Southern California and a master's degree in geology from UCLA.

Elachi was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1989 and is the recipient of numerous other awards including an honorary doctorate from the American University of Beirut (2013), the National Academy of Engineering Arthur M. Bueche Award (2011), the Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur from the French Republic (2011), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Carl Sagan Award (2011), the Royal Society of London Massey Award (2006), the Lebanon Order of Cedars (2006 and 2012), the International von Kármán Wings Award (2007), the American Astronautical Society Space Flight Award (2005), the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (2004, 2002, 1994), and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1999).

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He will move to campus as professor emeritus. A national search is underway to identify his successor.

Peters Named New Director of Resnick Sustainability Institute

Jonas C. Peters, the Bren Professor of Chemistry, has been appointed director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute. Launched in 2009 with an investment from philanthropists Stewart and Lynda Resnick and located in the Jorgenson Laboratory on the Caltech campus, the Resnick Institute concentrates on transformational breakthroughs that will contribute to the planet's sustainability over the long term.

The Resnick Sustainability Institute, which involves both the Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Engineering and Applied Science divisions, serves as a prime example of the multidisciplinary approach prized by Caltech.

"Some of the most important challenges in sustainability are also among the most complex," says Peters, who has been a member of the Caltech faculty since 1999. "We are committed to working on problems that are uniquely suited to the Caltech environment. This means starting with fundamentals and leveraging the cross-catalysis of ideas and creativity of this campus to come up with ways to have substantial impact."

Because the world's natural resources are dwindling, Peters wants to continue focusing the Resnick Institute's efforts on efficient energy generation, storage, and use. Some current projects include development of advanced photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical solar fuels and cellulosic biofuels; energy conversion work on batteries and fuel cells; and efficiency in industrial catalysis and advanced research on electrical grid control and distribution.

In addition, the Resnick Institute is exploring new opportunities in the area of water sustainability. In September, the institute hosted a workshop entitled "Water Resilience and Sustainability: Can We Make LA Water Self-Sufficient?" The workshop examined the long-term potential for sustainable water use in urban environments, using the Los Angeles area as a case study.

"The Resnick Sustainability Institute is continuing to build one of the great centers for sustainability research," says Peters. "We are doing this by supporting the most talented young scientists and engineers committed to tackling the fascinating, critical, and yet very difficult challenges of this field."

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Jonas C. Peters has been appointed director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute.
Friday, October 30, 2015
Beckman Institute Auditorium – Beckman Institute

Teaching Statement Workshop

Wednesday, November 11, 2015
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space) – Center for Student Services

Communication Strategies for Tutoring and Office Hours

Friday, October 23, 2015
Winnett Lounge – Winnett Student Center

TeachWeek Caltech Capstone Panel

Friday, October 16, 2015
Center for Student Services 360 (Workshop Space) – Center for Student Services

Course Ombudsperson Training, Fall 2015

Alumnus Arthur McDonald Wins 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics

Arthur B. McDonald (PhD '70), director of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Ontario, Canada, and Takaaki Kajita, at the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan, have shared the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery that neutrinos can change their identities as they travel through space.

McDonald and Kajita lead two large research teams whose work has upended the standard model of particle physics and settled a debate that has raged since 1930, when the neutrino's existence was first proposed by physicist Wolfgang Pauli. Pauli initially devised the neutrino as a bookkeeping device—one to carry away surplus energy from nuclear reactions in stars and from radioactive decay processes on Earth. In order to make the math work, he gave it no charge, almost no mass, and only the weakest of interactions with ordinary matter. Billions of them are coursing through our bodies every second, and we are entirely unaware of them.

There are three types of neutrinos—electron, muon, and tau—and they were, for many years, assumed to be massless and immutable. The technology to detect electron neutrinos emerged in the 1950s, and it slowly became apparent that as few as one-third of the neutrinos the theorists said the sun should be emitting were actually being observed. Various theories were proposed to explain the deficit, including the possibility that the detectable electron neutrinos were somehow transmuting into their undetectable kin en route to Earth.

Solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos would require extremely large detectors in order to catch enough of the elusive particles to get accurate statistics. Such sensitive detectors also require enormous amounts of shielding to avoid false readings.

The University of Tokyo's Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector, which came online in 1996, was built 1,000 meters underground in a zinc mine. Its detector, which counts muon neutrinos and records their direction of travel, found fewer cosmic-ray neutrinos coming up through the Earth than from any other direction. Since they should not be affected in any way by traveling through the 12,742-kilometer diameter of our planet, Kajita and his colleagues concluded that the extra distance had given them a little extra time to change their identities.

McDonald's SNO, built 2,100 meters deep in a nickel mine, began taking data in 1999. It has two counting systems. One is exclusively sensitive to electron neutrinos, which are the type emitted by the sun; the other records all neutrinos but does not identify their types. The SNO also recorded only about one-third of the predicted number of solar electron-type neutrinos—but the aggregate of all three types measured by the other counting systems matched the theory.

The conclusion, for which McDonald and Kajita were awarded the Nobel Prize, was that neutrinos must have a nonzero mass. Quantum mechanics treats particles as waves, and the potentially differing masses associated with muons and taus gives them different wavelengths. The probability waves of the three particle types are aligned when the particle is formed, but as they propagate they get out of synch. Therefore, there is a one-third chance of seeing any particular neutrino in its electron form. Because these particles have this nonzero mass, their gravitational effects on the large-scale behavior of the universe must be taken into account—a profound implication for cosmology.

McDonald came to Caltech in 1965 to pursue a PhD in physics in the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory under the mentorship of the late Charles A. Barnes, professor of physics, emeritus, who passed away in August 2015. "Charlie Barnes was a great mentor who was very proud of his students," says Bradley W. Filippone, professor of physics and a postdoctoral researcher under Barnes. "It is a shame that Charlie didn't get to see Art receive this tremendous honor."

A native of Sydney, Canada, McDonald received his bachelor of science and master's degrees, both in physics, from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1964 and 1965, respectively. After receiving his doctorate, he worked for the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario until 1982, when he became a professor of physics at Princeton University. He left Princeton in 1989 and became a professor at Queen's University in Kingston, Canada; the same year, he became the director of the SNO. In 2006, he became the holder of the Gordon and Patricia Gray Chair in Particle Astrophysics, a position he held until his retirement in 2013.

Among many other awards and honors, McDonald is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the Royal Society of Canada, and of Great Britain's Royal Society. He is the recipient of the Killam Prize in the Natural Sciences; the Henry Marshall Tory Medal from the Royal Society of Canada, its highest award for scientific achievement; and the European Physics Society HEP Division Giuseppe and Vanna Cocconi Prize for Particle Astrophysics.

To date, 34 Caltech alumni and faculty have won a total of 35 Nobel Prizes. Last year, alumnus Eric Betzig (BS '83) received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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