Caltech chemist John Baldeschwielernamed winner of 2000 National Medal of Science

John Baldeschwieler, J. Stanley Johnson Professor and professor of chemistry, emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology, has been named by President Clinton as one of this year's 12 recipients of the National Medal of Science. The announcement was made today (Nov. 13) at the White House.

Baldeschwieler, who has been on the Caltech faculty since 1973, was cited for his work on molecular assemblies for use in the delivery of pharmaceuticals, for his work on scientific instrumentation, and particularly for his development of ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy.

"I am delighted with the recognition that the award brings to our work at Caltech, and to the extraordinarily talented group of students that I've had the privilege to work with over the past four decades," Baldeschwieler said after receiving notification of the award.

David Baltimore, Caltech's president and a 1999 recipient of the National Medal of Science, said the award is a fitting tribute to Baldeschwieler's pioneering work in a wide range of fields.

"The National Medal of Science is America's most prestigious science honor, and I think it's appropriate that the award goes to John for his many contributions to basic science, as well as for his public service."

Baldeschwieler joined the Caltech faculty after several years at Harvard and Stanford universities. He was a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee from 1969 to 1972, serving as vice chairman from 1970 to 1972. He served as deputy director of the Office of Science and Technology from 1971 to 1973.

Baldeschwieler pioneered the use of nuclear magnetic resonance and double resonance spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser effects, and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy in chemical systems. His recent work concentrates on the use of phospholipid vesicles in cancer diagnosis and therapy, the development of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy for the study of molecules on surfaces, and on novel techniques for producing combinatorial arrays of oligonucleotides.

A native of New Jersey, he earned his doctorate at Berkeley in 1959. He is a fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society.

He was a founder of Vestar Inc., and served as chairman of the company's board of directors until it merged with NeXagen Inc. to form NeXstar Pharmaceuticals. He also served as director of NeXstar until it was acquired by Gilead Sciences, Inc. Baldeschwieler was also a founder and director of Combion, Inc.

He currently serves as a managing member of the Athenaeum Fund and is a director of Drug Royalty Corporation Inc., the Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena Entretec, and several privately held companies.

The National Medal of Science is presented annually by the president to scientific leaders who have changed or set new directions in research and science policy. Baldeschwieler and the other 11 recipients will receive their awards at the White House on December 1.

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Caltech glassblower plies an ancient trade

PASADENA—On a university campus with gravity-wave detectors, quantum teleportation devices, femtochemistry lasers, and Mach-20 wind tunnels, Rick Gerhart's glassblowing workshop almost seems by comparison like a step back into the Middle Ages.

Gerhart plies a trade that hasn't changed fundamentally in centuries. Just like the glassblowers of bygone days, Gerhart must begin with a quantity of glass, heat the glass until it glows red, spin the nascent object slowly to keep it from sagging, blow air by way of a mouth tube to add volume and shape, bend it if necessary, and cool it slowly to avoid cracking it.

Then, if all has gone well, Gerhart is ready to deliver the custom-made glass device to one of his many clients in Caltech's Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering or, occasionally, to other experimenters across campus.

"Glassblowing began with the ancient Egyptians," says Gerhart, an easygoing Caltech employee of seven years and a professional glassblower for more than 30. "Just like then, the goal is to keep the material from doing what it wants to do, which means you're always working with gravity.

"The way glassblowing probably got started was when some sand got too close to the fire and somebody noticed that you could gather up a glob and shape it," he says. "That's basically what artistic glassblowers do to this day."

Though the essentials really haven't changed much, scientific glassblowers like Gerhart have established a few shortcuts to make the work more uniform and efficient, and the glassware itself more durable. For one, Gerhart starts with Pyrex or quartz tubing of varying diameters and lengths, rather than a rounded mass of molten glass. This is not necessarily the best way to make an object of art, but it is an excellent means for constructing a receptacle that will likely be subjected to heat and high vacuums.

The way of the scientific glassblower, then, is to soften, shape, and fuse the glass tubing into a finished product. Pyrex is the choice for most routine experimental applications because it can take a lot of heat. But if the receptacle is to be cooled rapidly as well, the more expensive quartz tubing is preferable.

Another reason glassblowers use tubing is that it provides a head start on constructing a receptacle with rounded surfaces. Because chemists often use vacuums, they tend to avoid any sort of container with flat walls because a round receptacle is much better at resisting stress.

One might wonder why Gerhart's skills are necessary to a chemistry department when glass beakers and such can be ordered from a supply company. The answer is straightforward: because a cutting-edge chemistry department aims at doing one-of-a-kind experiments to uncover the subtleties of natural law, the researcher often requires a one-of-a-kind glass device to perform the experiment. Glass is the medium of choice because it reacts with very few chemicals, is relatively pliable and easy to work with, and is fairly cheap. Finally, glass provides a window to observe the ongoing experiment.

Gerhart has designed glassware for many of Caltech's most noteworthy chemists—including the 1999 Nobel laureate Ahmed Zewail. Another of his regular customers is John Bercaw, who is at the forefront in the design of catalysts for real-world applications. A typical glass high-vacuum manifold system for Bercaw can easily cost $20,000 to $30,000 and snake around half a laboratory.

"That's a good example of why my job exists," Gerhart says. "Once a (piece of work) is finished, there's nothing exactly like it in the world.

"For the more routine items you need—like beakers and flasks and test tubes—you can go through the catalogs from the supply houses and order them. I could make them, but there wouldn't be any point."

As for whether the work of the glassblower will always be needed, Bercaw has an interesting perspective. Though he often collaborates on computer simulations of experiments, Bercaw thinks chemists will never get away from regularly pouring a few chemicals.

"Experiments are always going to be required," he says. "So wherever there's experimental chemistry being done, there will always be a need for glassblowing.

"Glassblowing is not work that can be done by a computer—this is a real art," he says. "So you need someone talented and with a sense of aesthetics, and Rick is really good."

Nonetheless, Bercaw and Gerhart both say that chemical research has changed in such a way the last 20 years or so that the workload of a glassblower has inadvertently decreased. The reason is that chemists prefer to use smaller amounts of chemicals these days, which means that smaller glassware and experimental setups are required, which in turn means less human labor is required to produce the glassware.

"It takes a lot of time and manpower to make large and complicated glassware," says Gerhart. "So I think a lot of staffs have shrunk by attrition."

A native of Corning, New York, Gerhart grew up in a place where the glass industry has long been a significant economic force. Though he doesn't particularly consider glassblowing the family business, his father was a scientific glassmaker, and an uncle made glassware for the National Institutes of Health.

Although a child when his father died, Gerhart's early exposure to the glassblowing trade piqued his interest. At 20 he enrolled in a two-year program at Salem County Technical Institute in New Jersey—the only school in the United States for scientific glassblowing and one of the few in the world where one can study the art.

"Today, the best way to get into the business is probably to go to trade school," he says. "Or if you're really lucky, you might get to be an apprentice, but that's less likely these days now that glassblowing departments are getting smaller."

As for job satisfaction, Gerhart says he has no complaints. He enjoys the work and was rewarded by his peers in 1997 when they elected him president of the American Scientific Glassblowers Society.

"It's different—every day the workload changes, and every couple of years you're working with new people because a new set of graduate students and postdocs has come along. "Also, you get to work with the elite in research," he says. "So it's not a routine job—not a mundane job."

Contact: Robert Tindol (626) 395-3631

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Caltech researchers breed new genes to make natural products in bacteria

PASADENA—Using a new process of "sex in the test tube," a California Institute of Technology research group has been able to mate genes from different organisms and breed new genetic pathways in bacteria. These bacteria make an array of natural products that are naturally found in much more complex organisms.

The natural products, which are carotenoids similar to the pigment that gives carrots their color, are made by many different plants and microbes, but are totally foreign to the E. coli bacteria the researchers used. The new results, reported in the July issue of the journal Nature Biotechnology, show that the carotenoid-producing genes from different parent organisms can be shuffled together to create many-colored E. coli. Many of the carotenoids made in the bacteria are not even made by the organisms from which the parent genes came.

One of the reddish products, torulene, is not produced by any known bacteria, although it is found in certain red yeasts. "With molecular breeding, the experimenter can train the molecules and organisms to make new things that may not even be found in nature, but are valuable to us," says Frances Arnold, professor of chemical engineering and biochemistry at Caltech and coauthor of the new study.

Conceptually similar to dog breeding, the process generates progeny that are selected by researchers on the basis of attractive features. In this study, former Caltech researcher Claudia Schmidt-Dannert (now on the faculty at the University of Minnesota) and Caltech postdoctoral researcher Daisuke Umeno selected the new bacteria by their color.

This process of directed evolution, which Arnold has been instrumental in developing, is capable of creating new biological molecules and even new organisms with new or vastly improved characteristics. Unlike evolution in nature, where mutations are selected by "survival of the fittest," directed evolution, like breeding, allows scientists to dictate the characteristics of the molecules selected in each generation.

"We are now able to create natural products that usually have to come at great cost from esoteric sources simply by breeding ordinary genes in ordinary laboratory organisms," says Schmidt-Dannert.

The researchers believe that this method will be widely useful for making complex and expensive natural molecules such as antibiotics, dyes, and flavors. "Imagine being able to produce in simple bacteria many of the compounds that come from all over nature," says Arnold.

And, according to the authors, an even more irresistible target of directed evolution is finding bacteria that make biological molecules not yet found in nature.

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Honors for Caltech Faculty

PASADENA—Harry Gray, the California Institute of Technology's Beckman Professor of Chemistry and director of the Beckman Institute, has been named a Foreign Member of Great Britain's Royal Society, as well as a member of the American Philosophical Society.

Membership in the Royal Society is an honor that is bestowed each year on a small number of the world's outstanding scientists. One of the most prestigious learned societies, whose founding helped usher in the age of modern science, the Royal Society was established in 1661 under the patronage of King Charles II "for the purpose of improving natural knowledge." Isaac Newton was its first president.

In its citation, the society credited Gray with making "seminal contributions to virtually every area of modern inorganic chemistry."

A Caltech professor since 1965, Gray was named the Arnold O. Beckman Professor of Chemistry in 1981, served as chair of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from 1978 to 1984, and became head of the Beckman Institute in 1986. He received the National Medal of Science in 1986.

Additionally, Gray has been elected a member of the American Philosophical Society. The society is the oldest learned society in the United States devoted to the advancement of scientific and scholarly inquiry.

The Philosophical Society has also elected Maarten Schmidt, Caltech's Francis L. Moseley Professor of Astronomy, Emeritus, as well as alumnus Leroy Hood, who earned a bachelor's degree in biology in 1960 and a PhD in biochemistry in 1968, and recently founded the Institute for Systems Biology, a private research center in Seattle; and alumna Sharon Rugel Long, who earned a bachelor's degree in 1973 in Caltech's Independent Studies Program, and is a professor in Stanford University's department of biological sciences and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Contact: Jill Perry (626) 395-3226 jperry@caltech.edu

Visit the Caltech Media Relations Web site at: http://www.caltech.edu/~media

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Harry Gray named cowinner of Harvey Prizeby Israel Institute of Technology

PASADENA—For the third time this spring, Harry Gray of the California Institute of Technology has been named recipient of a major scientific honor.

Gray has been named cowinner of the Harvey Prize, presented annually by the Israel Institute of Technology to a scholar or scientist who has worked toward promoting goodwill between Israel and the nations of the world. Gray, Caltech's Beckman Professor of Chemistry and director of the Beckman Institute, received the award and the $50,000 monetary prize in Haifa June 1.

Earlier this month, Gray was named a foreign member of Great Britain's Royal Society, as well as a member of the American Philosophical Society.

In conferring the prize on Gray, the Israel Institute of Technology cited him for his pioneering contributions to inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry, and particularly for "his studies of reaction mechanisms and the nature of the chemical bond in transition metal complexes, and of the long-range electron transfer in proteins."

The Harvey Prize was begun in 1972 by the late Leo M. Harvey of Los Angeles. The prize is awarded annually as a tribute to outstanding scholars and scientists throughout the world, and derives from a $1 million endowment.

Gray, a Caltech professor since 1965, was named the Arnold O. Beckman Professor of Chemistry in 1981, served as chair of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from 1978 to 1984, and became head of the Beckman Institute in 1986. He received the National Medal of Science in 1986.

 

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Caltech Professor Frances Arnold Elected to Membershipin the National Academy of Engineering

PASADENA—Frances H. Arnold, professor of chemical engineering and biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology, was one of 78 engineers elected this year to membership in the National Academy of Engineering (NAE).

Arnold was elected for integrating fundamentals in molecular biology, genetics, and bioengineering to the benefit of life science and industry. Her research has revolutionized protein engineering and its applications to biotechnology, addressing central issues in protein design and the evolution of new biocatalysts.

Arnold is one of the pioneers in the use of "directed evolution" to improve proteins and other biological molecules for commercial applications. Directed evolution applies the principles of breeding, but to molecules rather than animals or plants. Even a single protein is enormously complex—"We don't know enough to design them from first principles," Arnold explains. "But evolution and breeding can yield beneficial changes rapidly."

Using these methods, Arnold has been able to generate proteins with a variety of useful features, like improved stability and the ability to function in nonnatural environments.

The practical applications of this research will be many. "They range from making better laundry detergent enzymes to developing possible new treatments for diabetes and aging," Arnold foresees. "One favorite 'vision' is a chemicals industry that is based entirely on biological processes: clean, safe, and economical. To do this we will have to 'evolve' nature's fabulous enzymes into highly practical catalysts."

NAE membership honors those who have made important contributions to engineering theory and practice, and those who have demonstrated unusual accomplishments in the pioneering of new and developing fields of technology. Election into the NAE is one the highest professional distinctions an engineer can receive.

Founded in 1964, the NAE is an independent, nonprofit institution that advises the federal government on issues of science and technology policy, and conducts studies to articulate the societal implications of rapid technological change. The NAE also initiates programs designed to encourage international cooperation between engineering societies, improve the public's technological awareness and understanding, and enhance the dialogue between scientists, engineers, and policymakers.

Of the 2,027 members of the NAE, Arnold is one of 51 women. She also holds the distinction of being the only member who is the daughter of an existing member. Arnold's father, William H. Arnold, was made a member of the NAE in 1974 for his contributions to the systems engineering of light-water nuclear power plants and to the design of commercial pressurized water reactors for nuclear systems.

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Caltech Appoints New Chairof Engineering and Applied Science

PASADENA—Richard M. Murray has been named chair of the Division of Engineering and Applied Science at the California Institute of Technology. The announcement was made by Steve Koonin, vice president and provost.

Murray replaces John Seinfeld, who is returning to full-time faculty and research duties after serving 10 years in the office. The appointment becomes effective June 1, and has been approved by the Caltech Board of Trustees.

"We feel very fortunate that a colleague of Richard's caliber has agreed to assume administrative responsibilities," Koonin said. "His vision and breadth of interests and experience bode well for both the division and the Institute.

"We would also like to take this opportunity to thank John Seinfeld for a decade of excellent and dedicated service as division chair," Koonin said.

Murray, who is professor of mechanical engineering at Caltech, has been a member of the faculty since 1991. His research interests include nonlinear control of mechanical systems with applications to aerospace vehicles and robotic locomotion, active control of fluids with applications to propulsion systems, and nonlinear dynamical systems theory.

Murray earned his bachelor's degree with honors in electrical engineering from Caltech in 1985, and his master's and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley in 1988 and 1991, respectively. Prior to joining the Caltech faculty in September 1991, he was a visiting lecturer at Berkeley, where he taught graduate-level classes in robotics.

In addition to his academic work, Murray has worked as an engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he was assigned to work on the Galileo spacecraft, now orbiting Jupiter. In 1998-99, he was director of mechatronic systems at the United Technologies Research Center, where he managed a department of 80 engineers, technicians, and staff in the area of embedded systems and controls technology.

The Division of Engineering and Applied Science is one of the six academic divisions at Caltech. The division has 77 faculty, 330 undergraduates, and 458 graduate students, making it the largest on campus.

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Using quantum atomistic computer simulations to solve industrial problems

PASADENA—In the world of engineering and applied science, ideas that look good on the drawing board often turn out to have annoying real-world problems, even though the finished products still look pretty good. An example is the aluminum car engine, which has the advantage of being lightweight, but tends to wear out more quickly than its heavier steel counterpart.

To solve such bedeviling problems, experts often find it necessary to go back to "first principles," which in the case of the aluminum engine may include a computer simulation of how the individual atoms slide around under wear and tear.

California Institute of Technology chemistry professor Bill Goddard had this type of problem in mind when he established a special center a decade ago within the campus's Beckman Institute. Christened the Materials and Process Simulation Center (MSC), Goddard's group set as their goals the development of computer simulation tools necessary to deal with materials and process issues, and the transfer of solutions to government and industry for the creation and improvement of products.

"We started the center to follow the dream of being able to predict chemical, biological, and materials processes with a computer," says Goddard. "The idea was to get a simulation that was close enough so that you wouldn't have to do the experiment."

Now that the MSC is celebrating its 10th anniversary, Goddard says the group has made some genuine progress on a number of real industrial problems—much to the satisfaction of corporate collaborators and sponsors, which at present are underwriting about 10 new projects each year.

In addition, the conference celebrates the 100th birthday of Arnold Beckman, the founder of Beckman Instruments and the benefactor of the Beckman Institute.

Since technology transfer and real-world results are a high priority, Goddard and his colleagues sponsor an annual meeting in which the collaborators showcase all their activities. This year's meeting, to be held March 23–24 at the Beckman Institute on campus, is also the 10th anniversary celebration of the center itself.

"There are several new accomplishments we'll discuss at this year's meeting," Goddard says. "We've had the first prediction of the structure of a membrane-bound protein, we've shown how to grow a new class of semiconductors to make real-world devices, and with our local collaborator Avery Dennison we've had success in predicting gas diffusion polymers.

"The bottom line is that it has worked out," he says. "In this center we have probably the most complete group of theorists in the world—about 40 people—and we've continued to have a flow of excellent grad students and postdocs who have gone on to be leaders in their fields."

A unique feature of the MSC is its emphasis in starting out with first principles, using quantum mechanics (the Schrödinger equation) to describe what is happening between atoms. For example, if the real-world problem is how best to lubricate a certain type of moving part (which is an actual industrially funded project the center has worked on), then the researchers would use the Schrodinger wave equation to build a simulation to show precisely how the electrons of a certain lubricant would interact with other electrons, how variable factors such as temperature and pressure would enter into the picture, and how a host of other interactions at the atomic level would play out.

But the quantum level is only the first in a hierarchy of regimes the center researchers might use in investigating complex problems. The quantum level with its Schrödinger equation is good for a system of about 100 atoms, but currently no computer can use quantum mechanics to predict the structure of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen to our muscles.

Rather, for systems with up to about a million atoms, the center uses molecular dynamics techniques, essentially solving Newtonian equations.

For the billion or so atoms or particles that compose a "segment" of material, the MSC investigators employ the techniques of coarse-grain meso-scale modeling and tools such as phase diagrams. Beyond this point, for process simulation, materials applications, and engineering design involving the entire object, the center has developed yet another set of techniques.

This hierarchy of materials modeling is not describable merely by the number or size scale of particles. Time scales are also involved, with quantum mechanics operating at the femtosecond scale (a millionth of a billionth of a second), molecular dynamics at the nanosecond scale (a billionth of a second), coarse-grain meso-scale modeling at the millisecond scale, process simulation at the scale of minutes, and engineering design over periods ranging up to years.

Finally, the hierarchy has many crossover points, which particularly allow the center's research to be innovative and interdisciplinary.

"So you start with fundamentals of quantum mechanics, and imbed this in the next steps at all length scales and time scales," Goddard says. "The idea is to figure out why these things happen, and how looking at first principles can solve industrial problems."

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Zewail wins Nobel Prize

PASADENA—Dr. Ahmed H. Zewail has won the 1999 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his groundbreaking work in viewing and studying chemical reactions at the atomic level as they occur. The announcement was made today by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Zewail, a native of Egypt, is Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Physics and professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology. He is internationally recognized for his efforts in a field he pioneered known as femtochemistry. This technique uses ultrafast lasers to probe chemical reactions as they actually occur in real time.

The Royal Swedish Academy cited Zewail "for showing that it is possible with rapid laser technique to see how atoms in a molecule move during a chemical reaction." Because reactions can take place in a millionth of a billionth of a second, Zewail's research has, with state-of-the-art lasers, made it possible to observe and study this motion for the first time, thus allowing scientists to probe nature at its fundamental level.

Specifically, Zewail seeks to understand better the way that chemical bonds form and break. With the development of laser techniques, he and his team have been able to obtain greater insights about the precise nature of chemical bonds. The field has had wide-ranging impact on chemistry and photobiology all over the world.

"Professor Zewail's contributions have brought about a revolution in chemistry and adjacent sciences, since this type of investigation allows us to understand and predict important reactions," the Royal Swedish Academy announced in the citation.

David Baltimore, president of Caltech and a fellow Nobel Laureate, said the news of Zewail's Nobel Prize spread rapidly over campus after the announcement.

"Being the Number One college in the country this year, according to U.S. News and World Report, and having the year's Number One chemist makes it a really great time for Caltech," Baltimore said.

Born and raised in Egypt and now a U.S. citizen, Zewail received both his bachelor's and his master's degrees from Alexandria University. He earned his doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania in 1974 and joined the Caltech faculty in 1976 after two years as an IBM Fellow at the University of California at Berkeley. Zewail is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Third World Academy of Science; and the European Academy of Arts, Sciences and Humanities; the Pontifical Academy of Sciences; and is a Fellow of the American Physical Society.

His international awards include the Welch Prize, King Faisal Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Carl Zeiss Award, the Leonardo da Vinci Award of Excellence, the Bonner Chemiepreis Award, and the Medal of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Among his national prizes are many from the American Chemical Society, including the Harrison-Howe Award, the Peter Debye Award, the E. Bright Wilson Award, and the Buck-Whitney Award. The American Physical Society has honored Dr. Zewail with the Earle K. Plyler Prize and the Herbert P. Broida Prize. He has also received the Chemical Sciences Award from the National Academy of Sciences. In 1995, the president of Egypt, H. Mubarak, honored Dr. Zewail with the Order of Merit, First Class.

Zewail's research has been supported in part by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research.

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Caltech Appoints New Chair of Chemistry/Chemical Engineering

PASADENA—David Tirrell has been named chair of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the California Institute of Technology.

Tirrell, the Ross McCollum-William H. Corcoran Professor and professor of chemistry and chemical engineering since 1998, is a researcher who focuses on connections between materials science and the biological sciences. His specific interests include the preparation of new materials for application in biology and medicine and a better understanding of the ways in which materials are made in nature.

Chemistry and chemical engineering form one of the six academic divisions at Caltech. The division has 33 faculty and 263 undergraduate and graduate students. Having the two disciplines in the same division greatly facilitates cooperation in teaching and research. There is a long history of fruitful interactions between chemists and chemical engineers at Caltech. The division faculty includes Nobel Laureate Rudolph Marcus and the late Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling, as well as National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine member Peter Dervan, the outgoing chair of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Dervan will return to teaching full time after five years as division chair.

"We feel very fortunate that a colleague of Dave's caliber has agreed to assume administrative responsibilities. His leadership skills have been evident during the year or so that he has been a Caltech faculty member and we expect that both the division and the Institute will benefit from his judgment and perspective," said Steven Koonin, vice president and provost.

Prior to coming to Caltech, Tirrell was the director of the National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Massachusetts, where he was also the Barrett Professor of Polymer Science and Engineering. He earned a master's and Ph.D. in polymer science and engineering from the University of Massachusetts in 1976 and 1978, respectively. He earned a bachelor's degree in chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1974.

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